Application Information

This drug has been submitted to the FDA under the reference 012128/003.

Names and composition

"URESE" is the commercial name of a drug composed of BENZTHIAZIDE.


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Answered questions

Enzyme Urease?
what is it? i believe it catalyzes, but i want to make sure Asked by Delfina Oritz 2 years ago.

Urease is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia. The reaction occurs as follows: (NH2)2CO + H2O → CO2 + 2NH3 Organisms that produce urease tend to be gastrointestinal or urinary tract pathogens, since urease enables them to neutralize the acid present in these acidic environments. Urease-positive pathogens include: * Helicobacter pylori * Enteric bacteria including Proteus, Klebsiella and Serratia * Ureaplasma urealyticum, a relative of the mycoplasma * Cryptococcus, an opportunistic fungus Answered by Elmer Ramsey 2 years ago.

Why does adding larger amounts of Urease Solution to Urea Solution slow down the time it takes to react?
I have a science experiment and everyone's results came to the conclusion that adding 5cm3 of Urease solution takes more time to increase pH than adding 3cm3 of URease Solution. The teacher doesn't know why? Can anyone help thanks :D Asked by Hui Burdin 2 years ago.

Urease is a nickel metallo enzyme that catalyzes the degredation of urea to ammonia. If Urease is added to a mixture of urea the activity of the enzyme is strongly diminished. Urea is bound to the active centre of the enzyme. Thus the active site of the enzyme is temporarily blocked by the 'false substrate'. The inhibition is called competitive because urea competes on equal terms for the binding site of Urease. Characteristically increasing the concentration of substrate reduces the effect of the inhibitor. Inhibition can be overcome. Answered by Elly Kinney 2 years ago.

Does Lactococcus lactis have urease activity?
I am working on a Dichotimous key for Microbiology. I am down to Strep. salivarius and L. lactis. I am working off the key my instructor gave us. The key says that S. salivarius is urease +, but I need to know about L. lactis. Can i use this as a test to differentiate between the two, or should I keep looking. ... Asked by Deanna Titterness 2 years ago.

I am working on a Dichotimous key for Microbiology. I am down to Strep. salivarius and L. lactis. I am working off the key my instructor gave us. The key says that S. salivarius is urease +, but I need to know about L. lactis. Can i use this as a test to differentiate between the two, or should I keep looking. I may have to drive over to the school today as I can't find any info on the internet. I also will need a confirmatory test. Answered by Lonnie Dickow 2 years ago.

Urease is not good choice becuause it is variable in Strep. salivarius too, you can find negative in one, positive in another salivarius. In my reference "Manual of Clinical Microbology 9th Ed" growth temperature test are recommended to diffrentiate Lactococcus sp.from Streptococcus sp. "Broths (heart infusion broth containing 1% Glucose and bromcresol purple indicator) are inoculated wth single colony or sngle drop of broth culture and incubated at 10 C , Turbidity with or without change in the broth's indicator to yellow indicates positive test. " Lactococus can grow in 10C, Streptococcus can not. Check tables in the reference below, too. Answered by Flor Argenziano 2 years ago.

Why is Urease not present in humans?
Asked by Madison Dukelow 2 years ago.

Urease is a protein that breaks down urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia, if we broke down our urea into these then our body would have too much carbon dioxide to excrete and then we would have to deal with the toxic ammonia in our blood. Instead of these we mix the urea with excess water and excrete it as urine. Answered by Taren Olmo 2 years ago.

Why the hell it should be ? one can also ask "why chlorophill is'nt present in human epidermis"...? Take out your head outta ur A S S... Answered by Clare Reiterman 2 years ago.

What Is Urease Answered by Randa Annis 2 years ago.

Could Urease Inhibitors Also Be Used In "H. pylori" Infection?
Pangolin, From my Reading, this Organism is Highly Resistant to Many Abxs, At Least Two (of different Mechanisms), is Recommended. Asked by Earle Darron 2 years ago.

I think we have a pattern here. Does this have anything to do with the other question on H inhibitors? I researched and found both in Internal Medicine (Harrison's) and Clinical Pharmacology (G&G) that the recommendation is omeprazol or H2-inhibitors (such as ranitidine) with the combined antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. No refference what so ever in terms of urease inhibitors. However, in the internet I found that acetohydroxamic (urease inhibitor) reduces the MIC of other antibiotic agents (however it was found that it also can increase it). We do know that urease is key in the colonization of H. pylori, but I think the evidence is not suficient to include it in the treatment of H. pylori. Also if your question is for a decision for now, there are some problems in the compliance with the dosing regime (up to half of patients) for erradicating the bacteria, and there are packs of drugs that facilitate the adherence to treatment; they do not include urease inhibitors, so that's another problem to consider. Besides, they're quite expensive. Of course if your question aims to a general perspective, such as if it should be included, then this point does not stands. Maybe I have to point out this since I'm from Argentina and costs in a 3rd world country are sadly always a factor. If you have better source of newer research, it'd be nice if you could share it! thank you! AbeL: urease reaction goes like this, (NH2)2CO + H2O → CO2 + 2NH3 so NH3+ H+ → NH4+, so capturing a proton pH raises if you use urease INHIBITOR, the pH would decrease! the use of urease inhibitor relates to the toxic efect of the metabolites the bacteria creates and the need for it to produce it to colonize the mucosa; ranitidine (H2 inhibitor) or omeprazol blocks proton production, so pH raises; it's a different purpose I do agree Greg about the local efect of urease, that's why I was trying to emphazise that ranitidine had the opposite effect, since AbeL tried to say to use ranitide instead of urease inhibitors or something like that... And with my first answer I wasn't trying to say that urease would be wrong. What I was trying to say is that I haven't read any good studies on the eficacy of urease in handling H. pylori infection, nor could find them. What I found were models in animals proving some reduction in the MIC of antibiotics. I strongly believe that therapeutical decision should not ONLY involve physiopathologycal reasoning, but also evidence-based medice studies that would support a certain indication. In fact, given the current circumstances, the information of the use of urease inhibitors is unsustaineable (unless proven wrong) carrying inconvenience to the patient. Am I making myself clear? Sometimes this things are hard to explain, I'm sorry. About the study you suggest, yes it'd be interesting, I couldn't find anything yet. Answered by Reinaldo Loftin 2 years ago.

Why not just treat with antibiotics, kill the bacteria and move on? Answered by Maire Shearing 2 years ago.

Urease the enzyme that catalyses breakdown of urea to ammonia & co2, work better at pH 8 than pH 9, why?
Asked by Casie Brinkmann 2 years ago.

I don't really know anything about urease in particular, but I can give some general advice about enzymes. Most enzymes are made of proteins (such as urease). The folded protein structure (tertiary structure) is directly affected by the sequence of amino acids (primary structure) that it is comprised of. The 3D structure of protein is directly related to its function. In other words, if you modify the individual amino acids within the sequence, you cause something of a butterfly effect where one contour in the protein due to mutation/physiological change (pH level) causes the rest of the protein to adopt possibly a very different conformation. When you raise the pH of a solution, you are probably deprotonating the acidic amino acids that make up the protein which causes the breakage of hydrogen bonds between the bases, changing the structure of the enzyme rendering it less effective. Blood pH I believe is around 7.4. As you can see, pH 7.4 is closer to 8 than 9. The protein has probably evolved to function under a narrow pH range (as found in our bodies) around pH = 7.4. Raising the pH as high as 9 is less natural and thus the enzyme does not perform its evolutionary task as easily as it should under normal conditions. Answered by Kamala Schattner 2 years ago.

What is the reagent for the Rapid Urease Test?
For example the reagent for the Rapid Catalase Test is H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide). However i cannot find what the reagent is for the Rapid Urease Test, none of my textbooks say??? Asked by Karena Dipolito 2 years ago.

Tom, you have to learn to do some research by yourself: You obviously have access to the internet. Have you ever heard of Google or Wikipedia? I have no prior knowledge of "Rapid Urease Test", but in 1 minute I got this from Wiki: " Rapid urease test, also known as the CLO test (Campylobacter-like organism test), is a rapid test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori.The basis of the test is the ability of H. pylori to secrete the urease enzyme, which catalyzes the conversion of urea to ammonia and bicarbonate. The test is performed at the time of gastroscopy. A biopsy of mucosa is taken from the antrum of the stomach, and is placed into a medium containing urea and an indicator such as phenol red. The urease produced by H. pylori hydrolyzes urea to ammonia, which raises the pH of the medium, and changes the color of the specimen." Very easy to understand that the reagent is urea with an indicator. I am sure you could have got this information with a little effort. Answered by Odis Gieringer 2 years ago.

Helicobacter pylori bacteria grow in the human stomach. These bacteria produce a large amt of urease. of what?
Asked by Wilford Cohron 2 years ago.

Urease is an enzyme that digests, or breaks down, urea ( a waste product of muscle activity) into carbon dioxide and ammonia. Ammonia, as its a base, acts to neutralize gastric acid. Answered by Lincoln Hoffer 2 years ago.

Urease is an enzyme, what is the substrate and end products? Describe the pH change in this reaction?
I know the end product is CO2 and ammonia, would the pH rise? why Asked by Tamar Margo 2 years ago.

enzyme urease breaks down urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide: CO(NH2)2 + H2O → 2 NH3 + CO2 Ammonia (NH3) solution has a high pH which can be detected using a simple pH indicator. Answered by Brenda Savedra 2 years ago.


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