How does photofrin attract to cancer cells?
Photofrin is a commercial drug used in photodynamic therapy. Does it penetrate cancer cell membrane? If so, how does it do this? Does it just stick to the membrane? Why cancer and not any other healthy cell? Please be specific.
Asked by Alberto Quaintance 2 years ago.
photofrin is taken up by many types of cells and crosses the membrane. Since it is a photosensitizer it will only become active when light at 630 nm is applied and the laser will be focused on the cancer cells leaving the normal cells undisturbed. Answered by Caryl Nantz 2 years ago.
Barrett's Esophagus is it always a malignancy ?
I mean that this exact article was found in WIKI-PEDIA, ver batum,
Asked by Anisha Cassata 2 years ago.
I am being treated with Chemo for a condition called Barrett's Esophagus . I am a Veteran and utilizing the VA medical system. The Dr's don't really answer my questions to a point that I can really understand the situation that I am in. I was told that it is a genetic condition that is caused by acid reflux, which I have had since I was a kid. I'm 47 now. I was treated for stomach ulcers at 11 years old and have been eating tums like a kid eats skittle's for years. I was told by my primary care Dr. that my condition is considered Pre-malignant, I think that means that it hasnt yet developed into a cancerous cell yet. If it is not cancerous, I am more curious now as to why I am undergoing chemo treatment ! I was adopted at birth and therefore I have no family medical information to refer too ! This was discovered during a few separate Dr appointment conversations that my doc had pieced together things from earlier appointments and ordered a Endo and which a biopsy was taken, where some abnormal looking cells were found near my stomach. Anything you may have will help me to ask some more lucid and informed questions during my next visit. I am afraid to ask if this is a life threatening illness, But I have researched it some on line and see that it can be in some cases. What are some very smart questions to ask and what are the answers that I should get both pro's and con's Thanks for anything you can provide. In this case a family history would be the best but my adoption records require a court order to open and a bunch of time and money that I don't have. Answered by Season Nghe 2 years ago.
Barrett's Esophagus becomes malignant in 1 to 5 % of patients. More details are as given below. The cells lining the esophagus differ from those lining the stomach or intestines, mainly because they have different functions. They also have a distinctly different appearance, so it is usually easy for a physician to tell them apart when examining the esophagus and stomach. Normally, there is an area at the end of the esophagus that marks the border between the cells of the esophagus and those of the stomach. Barrett's esophagus is the abnormal growth of intestinal-type cells above this border, into the esophagus. Since the cells lining the stomach are protected from contact with acid, their growth into the esophagus may actually be a defense mechanism. It may protect the normal tissue in the esophagus against further damage by GERD. This may explain why the symptoms of GERD seem to lessen in some patients with Barrett's esophagus. Unfortunately, these tissue changes may be a forerunner of cancer of the lower esophagus, known as adenocarcinoma. Cancer of the upper esophagus (squamous cell cancer) is usually related to alcohol and smoking. This type of cancer appears to be decreasing in the population, while the rate of adenocarcinoma is increasing sharply, especially in white males. In time, the Barrett's cells may develop abnormal changes known as dysplasia. Over a period of perhaps two to five years, the dysplasia may then progress to low grade, then to high grade dysplasia, and finally to cancer. Fortunately, this happens only in about 1-5% of patients with Barrett's esophagus. Answered by Stacee Eash 2 years ago.
Barrett's oesophagus is a condition which affects the lower oesophagus. (It is named after the doctor who first described it.) The cells that line the oesophagus in the affected area become changed. The cells of the inner lining (epithelium) of normal oesophagus are pinkish-white, flat cells (squamous cells). The cells of the inner lining of the area affected by Barrett's oesophagus are tall, red cells (columnar cells). The columnar cells are similar to the cells that line the stomach. The changed cells at the lower end of the oesophagus are not cancerous. However, these cells have an increased risk (compared to normal oesophagus cells) of turning cancerous in time. The risk is small. About 1 or 2 people in 100 with Barrett's oesophagus develop cancer of the oesophagus at some stage in their life. Heartburn is the main symptom. It is a burning feeling that rises from the upper abdomen or lower chest up towards the neck. (It is confusing as it has nothing to do with the heart!). Other common symptoms include: pain in the upper abdomen and chest, feeling sick, an acid taste in the mouth, bloating, belching, and a burning pain when you swallow hot drinks. Like heartburn, these symptoms tend to come and go, and tend to be worse after a meal. There are various degrees of dysplasia from low-grade dysplasia to high-grade (severe) dysplasia. Cells that are classed as high-grade dysplasia have a high risk of turning cancerous at some point in the future. Barrett's oesophagus is not a cancerous condition, but over a long period of time it can occasionally lead to cancer developing in the lower part of the oesophagus. A cancer happens when cells in the affected area continue to grow and reproduce and become increasingly abnormal. Approximately 1-2 out of every 200 people in the UK have Barrett's oesophagus; however, very few people with this condition go on to develop cancer (about 1 in 100 each year). Answered by Omega Pilarski 2 years ago.