Mannitol, a carbohydrate, is supplied as a 25% (w/v) solution. This hypertonic solution is given to patients?
who have sustained a head injury associated with brain swelling. a. What volume should be given to provide a dose of 70.0g? b. How does the hypertonic mannitol benefit brain swelling?
Asked by Lizette Herres 6 months ago.
A 25% w/v solution has 25 g mannitol in 100 ml of solution. 200 ml of solution would contain 50 g and 300 ml would contain 75 g, which is too much. 70 / 25 = 2.8. 2.8 × 100 = 280. So you would need 280 ml solution to provide a dose of 70.0 g. The principles of diffusion explain why this would benefit a patient. Cells are semipermeable membranes, meaning that they allow some substances to pass through them freely but not others. Water freely diffuses across membranes via protein channels called aquaporins. The direction that water moves across a membrane is determined by a number of factors, one of which is solute concentration. If a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution this means that the concentration of solutes is higher in the surrounding solution than it is inside the cell and water will tend to leave the cell until the solute concentration is equal inside and outside of the cell. Keep in mind that water molecules are constantly moving in both directions, but there will be far more water molecules leaving the cell than entering it. The blood stream works like a solution, as it is essentially an aqueous mixture of dissolved solids like red blood cells, ions and glucose molecules. These move past the cells that line the veins and arteries and fluid enters and exits the cells in response to the solute concentration in the blood stream. By introducing relatively large quantities of a solute, mannitol in this case, the patient's blood becomes hypertonic to the patient's cells. This will cause water to exit the cells to equalize the concentration. As water leaves the cells they deflate, like a balloon, and this will decrease the swelling. The swollen brain cells probably have an unusually high volume of water in them and as a result they will need to lose more water than other body cells to equalize with the blood. Thus the effect will be more dramatic in the brain than in other cells. Answered by Asia Garlitz 6 months ago.
Find Molecular weight (Mr) of mannitol?
vapor pressure(VP) of solution(25.97g of mannitol per 500g of water) at 20C=17.42mmHg.If VP of water at 20C=17.51mmHg. what is the mr of mannitol.
Asked by Digna Krumenauer 6 months ago.
p(a) = p°(a) X(a) X(a) is the mole fraction of water Moles H2O = 500 / 18 = 27.8 X(a) = 27.8 / 27.8 + moles mannitol) 17.42 = 17.51 ( 27.8 / 27.8 + moles mannitol) moles = 0.144 mr = 25.97 / 0.144 = 180 g/mol Answered by Jacques Klotz 6 months ago.
A patient receives 100 mL of 23% (m/v) mannitol solution every hour.?
1. How many grams of mannitol are given in 1 hour? 2.How many grams of mannitol does the patient receive in 25 hours? Thank you in advance!
Asked by Danna Macomb 6 months ago.
1. How many grams of mannitol are given in 1 hour? 23g/100ml= 23gr per hr. assuming the density is 1g/ml. 2.How many grams of mannitol does the patient receive in 25 hours? 25 x 23g=575g of mannitol . Answered by Alysia Quezad 6 months ago.
Mannitol Solution Answered by Hilde Eayrs 6 months ago.
What are the ingredients of mannitol salt agar?
what is the composition of mannitol salt agar
Asked by Marie Pater 6 months ago.
Typically Peptone ........................................... 10.0 g Beef Extract ....................................... 1.0 g D-Mannitol ........................................ 10.0 g Sodium Chloride ................................ 75.0 g Agar ........................................... 15.0 g Phenol Red ....................................... 25.0 mg per litre of water,which is then sterilised in an autoclave and poured in to plates before setting Answered by Ashlie Riccelli 6 months ago.
Composition Of Mannitol Salt Agar Answered by Phillip Paskel 6 months ago.
Help...drug calculations? 500 mg ampicillin solution ordered, available solution 125mg/5mL.How much is needed?
-200 g of sucrose dissolved in water to make 800 mL os solution. Whats the % strength?-IVsolution contains 2% mannitol how many mL of solution should be given to provide pt w/ 30g of mannitol?-2.4g of codeine in 250 mL of cough syrup. How many mL are in 1 tsp of the syrup?-8.8 mL of water is added to 0.4 mL...
Asked by Marni Allenson 6 months ago.
-200 g of sucrose dissolved in water to make 800 mL os solution. Whats the % strength? -IVsolution contains 2% mannitol how many mL of solution should be given to provide pt w/ 30g of mannitol? -2.4g of codeine in 250 mL of cough syrup. How many mL are in 1 tsp of the syrup? -8.8 mL of water is added to 0.4 mL of a drug. What is the dilution ratio? -You removed 95mL, 1.8L, 365 mL, and 2/5L from a container of solution. How many mL were removed in total. -1.8 L gluclose to be administered I.V. over 12 hrs. What's the flow rate if the drop factor is 12? -1mL of a 200 mg/mL sedative to a 150lb pt. Whats the equivalent dose in mg/kg? -drug is supplied in tablets of 800mg strength. a 50 lb child needs a 1 week supply at a dose of 40 mg/lb every 12 hrs. How many tablets are needed in total? -Ketamine in 100mL vial that has 100mg/mL. If 1 mL of ketamine is diluted 1:25 how many mg are in 5 mL of the diluted solution? -1 tablet contains 75mg of a drug, how many g are in 250 tablets? Answered by Hang Rieper 6 months ago.
(1) 20mL 500mg needed. You have 125mg / 5mL You need 500 x 5 / 125 mL = 2500/125 mL = 20mL OR 5mL = 125mg 10mL = 250mg 20mL = 500mg <= this is what you need! (2) 200g sucrose in 800mL sterile water is the same concentration as 200/8 or 25g in 100mL This is a 25% solution (3) 2% mannitol has 2g mannitol per 100mL solution You want 30g which is the same as 30 x 100 / 2 mL = 1500mL (or 1.5L) which is a lot ***CHECK THIS DOSAGE WITH THE DOCTOR*** (4) 2.4g codeine in 250mL 1 tsp is 5mL in metric measures NB US teaspoon and UK teaspoon measures differ from metric teaspoon measure (5) 0.4mL of drug in 8.8mL of water OOoooh - dilution ratio is an old concept that I haven't been taught. Okay let me see 8.8 / 0.4 gives you 22 1:22 I think The only tricky bit here is that I don't know if you are supposed to add the drug volume and do 9.2/0.4 which would make it 1:23 (6) 95+1800+365+400mL = 2660mL removed from the container in total (7) 1800mL / 12hrs is 150mL/hr You would need to know the particular volume of the drops in the giving set. I guess that's what you mean by the drop factor, but I am used to giving sets that will say: 20drops = 1mL or some such. If 12drops = 1mL (I'm not sure if this is what you mean by drop factor) then you have 1800 drops/hr = 30 drops/min = 5 drops ever 10 sec (8) 200mg of sedative is given to the 150lb patient (68kg). You have given a dose of 2.9mg/kg (9) 40mg/lb every 12 hrs for a 50lb child is 2000mg 12 hrly If you only have 800mg tablets, you will be needing to supply 2.5 tabs every 12 hrs (twice a day) In many cases you might have to discard the extra 0.5 tablet and dispense 3 tablets twice a day for 7 days (ie 42 tablets) In some cases you might be able to keep the extra 0.5 tablet and then you would only need to give 5 tablets each day for 7 days (35 tablets) (10) WOW - lots of Ketamine! 100mg/mL ... you have 1mL (= 100mg) and you dilute it 1:25 and then you draw off 5mL you should have 1/5 of your original 100mg which is to say 20mg (11) 75mg in 1 tablet 75x250 mg in 250 tablets = 18750mg or 18.75g in 250 tablets Answered by Phuong Giedlin 6 months ago.
If you can't figure these out without assistance, I do NOT want you dispensing meds. C'mon. If there's 125 mg of ampicillin in a 5 ml dose, isn't it obvious that you need four 125 mg doses - and thus 20 ml of solution - in order to get 500 mg of ampicillin? You can't add up 95 milliliters, 1.8 liter, 365 milliliters and 2/5 of a liter? Hint: how many milliliters are there in a liter? Maybe you should be taking classes for hod carrying, instead? Answered by Florentino Remey 6 months ago.
Hmm, yeah if you're expected to know how to do these, the best thing is to let you work on them yourself. You should know the metric system by now, I'll bet. Struggling with it will make it stay with you longer. Answered by Laurinda Wormington 6 months ago.
Glycolysis and Respiration?
I have a lab report due, and I'm just looking for a bit of extra information to explain results and to understand better.Our experiment involved the centrifugation of flesh fly thoraxes, resulting in a pellet containing mitochondria and nuclei, and a supernatant of soluble muscle constituents, and the...
Asked by Nannette Inman 6 months ago.
I have a lab report due, and I'm just looking for a bit of extra information to explain results and to understand better. Our experiment involved the centrifugation of flesh fly thoraxes, resulting in a pellet containing mitochondria and nuclei, and a supernatant of soluble muscle constituents, and the homogenate of the fly thorax. We used these components along with other substances and observed if methylene blue bleached or not (indicating loss of dissolved oxygen.) My questions are: Which processes will lead to a loss of oxygen? Electron transport system (ETS) only? What substances in the experiment do these processes require? What are the roles of each substance? I am learning from the results. Below I try to interpret the results, but I suspect I don't know much of why I am talking about and I am just trying to connect the dots here. Tube 1: (all in milliliters) Mannitol .25 - I assume this is to help with the structure of lone mitochondria? Buffer Mix .45 - Purpose? Glucose .2 - To allow glycolysis? Succinate .0 - Purpose? Homogenate .25 - Purpose? Supernatant .0 - Purpose? Pellet .0 - Purpose? Tube 1 Bleached. Why? There was no pellet or supernatant. Did the homogenate carry out glycolysis AND allow for the ETS to work, depleting oxygen? Tube 2: Mannitol .25 Buffer Mix .45 Glucose .2 Succinate .0 Homogenate .0 Supernatant .0 Pellet .25 Tube 2 did not bleach. Why? Does glycolysis occur? There is no cytoplasm (which I assume will be in homogenate, maybe supernatant too??) so glycolysis cannot occur? Pellet is there, so mitchondria is there. Why no bleaching? Tube 3 Mannitol .25 Buffer Mix .45 Glucose .2 Succinate .0 Homogenate .0 Supernatant .25 Pellet .0 Tube 3 did not bleach. Why? The supernatant is there, what processes can the supernatant allow to occur? Glycolysis only, and no ETS? Tube 4 Mannitol .0 Buffer Mix .45 Glucose .2 Succinate .0 Homogenate .0 Supernatant .25 Pellet .25 Tube 4 bleached. Why? And what's the consequence of no mannitol in this one? Supernatant carried out glycolysis, and pellet carried out ETS, depleting oxygen? Correct? Tube 5 Mannitol .25 Buffer Mix .45 Glucose .0 Succinate .2 Homogenate .0 Supernatant .0 Pellet .25 Tube 5 bleached. Why? No homogenate or supernatant, which I (as of now) think are what carries out glycolysis. And then we have no glucose anyway, we have succinate this time. Is succinate a substance that allows the pellet to carry out ETS regardless of the absence of glycolysis? Tube 6 Mannitol .25 Buffer Mix .45 Glucose .0 Succinate .2 Homogenate .0 Supernatant .25 Pellet .0 Tube 6 did not bleach. I assume this is because succinate allows for the ETS without glycolysis, aka a "mid-product" (as I above ASSUMED again) but there is no pellet and so no mitochondria, so the ETS cannot happen anyway. The supernatant can't do anything with succinate, then? A mismatched substrate and "fly part," then? Tube 7 Mannitol .25 Buffer Mix .45 Glucose .0 Succinate .0 Homogenate .25 Supernatant .0 Pellet .0 Tube 7 bleached. How? Just homogenate, no succinate or glucose? How can that be? Did the homogenate have levels of glucose in it that the fly stored, allowing the homogenate to carry out glycolysis and ETS?? Further reading shows I'm missing a key - krebs cycle. Does the krebs cycle act on succinate? It requires oxygen. Is this why a combination of pellet/homogenate and succinate bleach the tube? Thanks guys!!! Answered by Gabriele Hewson 6 months ago.
Wow! We just covered cellular respiration and still doing it with the muscular system in a&p. you might want to look up Krebs cycle or cellular respiration. You do need glucose and oxygen when making ATP but there is also ADP that can be formed from an anaerobic (no oxygen required) cycle which I believe is the Krebs cycle or citric acid cycle. Answered by Anamaria Mettling 6 months ago.
cardio respiration, glycolysis and fermentation are all areas of "cellular respiration" cardio respiration occurs interior the presence of oxygen, to yield water as its very final product. Glycolysis is the 1st straightforward step in the two cardio and anaerobic respiration - wherein glucose molecules are oxidized. Fermentation includes the breakdown of a carbohydrate substrate which occurs decrease than anaerobic situations. Answered by Ayana Pach 6 months ago.
What is the other Ingredients on klonopin 0.25 wafers?
are the other ingredients in it dangerous? I can't remember what is it but its something 0.59 mg and my doctor said take as needed but I'm worried about the other Ingredients WHAT is the other ingredients
Asked by Christia Janoff 6 months ago.
gelatin, mannitol, methylparaben sodium, propylparaben sodium and xanthan gum. None of this will harm you unless you're allergic. Answered by Louella Belgarde 6 months ago.
1.375 g sample of mannitol is burned completely in oxygen to give 1.993 g of CO2 and 0.9519 g of H2O.?
What is the molecular formula? I know that the answer is C3H7O3becauseC:1.00H:2.36O:1.33then it would be multiplied by 3 to get C3H7O3My question is: Why should it be multiplied by 3? When I am computing for other problems where I need to get the molecular formula I don't need to multiply it by...
Asked by Beatris Beasmore 6 months ago.
What is the molecular formula? I know that the answer is C3H7O3 because C:1.00 H:2.36 O:1.33 then it would be multiplied by 3 to get C3H7O3 My question is: Why should it be multiplied by 3? When I am computing for other problems where I need to get the molecular formula I don't need to multiply it by certain numbers Answered by Antonina Craze 6 months ago.
Mass C in 1.993g CO2 = 12/44*1.993 = 0.5435 Mass H in 0.9519g H2O = 2/18* 0.9519 = 0.1058 Mass O = 1.375 - ( 0.5435 + 0.1058) = 0.7257 Divide by atomic mass C = 0.5435/12 = 0.0453 H = 0.1058 /1 = 0.1058 O = 0.7257/16 = 0.0454 Divide by smallest: C = 1 H = 0.1058/0.0454 = 2.33 O = 1 Remove fraction by multiplying all by 3 C = 3 H = 7 O = 3 Empirical formula = C3H7O3 Note to you: Your ratios are wrong - as you see O should be 1.0 Your figures will give: C3H7O4 which is not correct. You often end up with ratios that are not exact whole numbers, as is the case here. You then have top do some mathematical juggling to bring the ratios into whole numbers. In this case H = 2.33. The only way to eliminate this fraction and have a whole number ration is to multiply by 3. You often get a ratio like C = 1 and H = 2.5 - Here you multiply by 2 to remove the fraction, and you get C = 2 and H = 5 Sometimes the ratios are quite strange and some trial and error is called for. But you have to end up with whole number ratios. Do not be tempted , as I see here quite often, that numbers such as 1.33 is rounded to 1 or even 1.5, or 1.66 is rounded to 1.5 or 2.0. Do not do this. You can get a ratio : C = 1.25 and O = 2.5 What to do? divide by 1.25, and get C= 1 and O =2. CO2. Answered by Fredricka Lease 6 months ago.
Please help me identify my Microbiology unknown bacteria.?
Call shape: RodsArrangement: StreptobacillusGram Positivenon-motileAgar Slant: Moderate Growth, no pigments. opaque, echinulateNutrient Broth: No surface GrowthGelatin Stab: no liqufaction, beadedOptimum Temp: 25 CFermentation: Glucose acid positive, no gas; Lactose Acid negative, no gas; slightly...
Asked by Delpha Chad 6 months ago.
Call shape: Rods Arrangement: Streptobacillus Gram Positive non-motile Agar Slant: Moderate Growth, no pigments. opaque, echinulate Nutrient Broth: No surface Growth Gelatin Stab: no liqufaction, beaded Optimum Temp: 25 C Fermentation: Glucose acid positive, no gas; Lactose Acid negative, no gas; slightly positive mannitol for acid Hydrolysis: Starch negative, Casein hydrolyzed, negative for fat hydrolysis Indole negative, Methyl Red slightly positive, Negative Citrate Utilization, Positive Nitrate Reduction, Negative Urease, Positive Catalase and Oxidase. Phenylalanase negative Litmus Milk: Alkaline Answered by Fairy Poepping 6 months ago.
According to my research it was in the firmicutes bacteria. Then, I found cocci--most are spherical; but, there are some rod-shaped. I settled on Lactobacillus because it is usually benign; is a symbiotic streptobacillus, and is a gram+ bacteria found in the gastrointestinal tract and vagina. Let us know what it is. Answered by Edna Badenoch 6 months ago.
il mail u identification flow chart.it may help u. Answered by Julio Bild 6 months ago.
I need MAJOR HELP in determing my mystery bacteria for my Microbiology course!?
The stats are below and I ran several tests on it. Thanks tons!!-gram stain negative-cell shape is Bacillus-has mobility-optimum temp is 25 degrees-color is darkish-yellowish-wavy-shape, irregular-fermentation positive (glucose, lactose, maltose, mannitol)-hydrolysis starch...
Asked by Gracia Pahls 6 months ago.
The stats are below and I ran several tests on it. Thanks tons!! -gram stain negative -cell shape is Bacillus -has mobility -optimum temp is 25 degrees -color is darkish-yellowish -wavy-shape, irregular -fermentation positive (glucose, lactose, maltose, mannitol) -hydrolysis starch negative -SIM test; h2s negative, motility positive, indole positive -IMViC tests; Methyl red-negative VP-negative Citrate-negative Nitrate-negative Urease-negative Oxdase-negative Catalase-positive (bubbles) It's either Faciliative Aerobe or Obligate Aerobe Thanks tons!! Answered by Norman Stephans 6 months ago.
Well, it sure isn't E. coli, now is it? LOL. It sounds more like Obligate aerobe but I was wondering if it might be Facultative aerobe due to lack of oxdase presence. Never heard of Faciliative aerobe in my microbio class. Answered by Tatyana Kefauver 6 months ago.
At 2:30 I leave for work but I will be thinking of him and will say a prayer.Thanks for letting me know lil star! Mystery 2 you will be missed on P&S! Rest in piece my friend. ♥♥♥♥♥♥♥ Answered by Pinkie Montaya 6 months ago.