Application Information

This drug has been submitted to the FDA under the reference 016812/001.

Names and composition

"KETALAR" is the commercial name of a drug composed of KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE.

Forms

ApplId/ProductId Drug name Active ingredient Form Strenght
016812/001 KETALAR KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 10MG BASE per ML
016812/002 KETALAR KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 50MG BASE per ML
016812/003 KETALAR KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 100MG BASE per ML

Similar Active Ingredient

ApplId/ProductId Drug name Active ingredient Form Strenght
016812/001 KETALAR KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 10MG BASE per ML
016812/002 KETALAR KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 50MG BASE per ML
016812/003 KETALAR KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 100MG BASE per ML
071949/001 KETAMINE HCL KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE Injectable/ Injection EQ 10MG BASE per ML
071950/001 KETAMINE HCL KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE Injectable/ Injection EQ 50MG BASE per ML
071951/001 KETAMINE HCL KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE Injectable/ Injection EQ 100MG BASE per ML
074524/001 KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 50MG BASE per ML
074524/002 KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 100MG BASE per ML
074549/001 KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 50MG BASE per ML
074549/002 KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 100MG BASE per ML
076092/001 KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 10MG BASE per ML
076092/002 KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 50MG BASE per ML
076092/003 KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 100MG BASE per ML

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Answered questions

Is ketamine (ketalar) an appropriate anesthetic for a pt with uncontrolled hypertension? why or why not?
Asked by Napoleon Accardo 1 year ago.

LOL yarbigy! You can't make blanket statements about what drug is or is not appropriate unless you know a lot more about a specific patient and specific case. In general, we might avoid ketamine in the face of uncontrolled hypertension, because ketamine will raise blood pressure. However, in a pre-eclamptic patient with an abruption needing an emergent C-section, I might use it, as propofol or pentothal might drop the blood pressure in this volume contracted patient to unacceptably low levels. It completely depends on the situation. The dose of ketamine is also important. Small doses, like 10-20 mg, used as an adjuvant for analgesia are probably not going to have much influence on the blood pressure. We don't use ketamine as a sole anesthetic. We use it as part of a balanced technique, along with a handful of other drugs. Answered by Gussie Dahlke 1 year ago.

I found this quote off of a website that may help you: 'Cardiovascular Blood pressure and pulse rate are frequently elevated following administration of ketamine alone.' It looks like that it would not be appropriate for a hypertensive patient when given alone, but it could be given in conjunction with other drugs to counteract the effect. But still, I wouldn't use it on someone who's circulatory system was compromised. But like almost all other drugs, the polar opposite effect can be seen (Hypotension). Hope this helps. PS - Vets use it as a cat sedative all the time... I sure wouldn't want to be sedated with anything used to knock out cats!! Answered by Marilyn Armendarez 1 year ago.

no, because it can raise blood pressure, or yes, if you administer it with hypotensive agents. for the person saying its used on cats, wouldnt want ect. I also know vets use desflurane, isoflurane, nitrous oxide, pentobarbital, thiopental fentanyl and hydromorphone as part of their anestesia regiment, I guess the medical profession better never use any of the standard/common anestesias or painkillers on you, huh? *facepalm* pagolin, yes I know it requires to asses the patient and situation on hand/in person to really know the exact answer, but I was giving a very general answer that hypertension must be considered when using ketamine as an anestesia agent. Also, we use it as a primary, and sole anestesia agent, as we cant, in the field, use anything that depresses breathing too much, as we lack ventilation except manually with a bag. Answered by Tonisha Rane 1 year ago.

The effect of ketamine on the respiratory and circulatory systems is different from that of other anesthetics. When used at anesthetic doses, it will usually stimulate rather than depress the circulatory system. So should not use it in this patient. Answered by Shandi Vanoni 1 year ago.


How safe is ketamine?
im doing a drug S A and i don't know hos safe ketamine it please help :) thank you. Asked by Keila Schelb 1 year ago.

You are playing with fire. Ketamine is a drug used in human and veterinary medicine. Its hydrochloride salt is sold as Ketanest, Ketaset, and Ketalar. Pharmacologically, ketamine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist.[2] At high, fully anesthetic level doses, ketamine has also been found to bind to opioid μ receptors and sigma receptors.[3][4] Like other drugs of this class such as tiletamine and phencyclidine (PCP), it induces a state referred to as "dissociative anesthesia"[5] and is used as a recreational drug. Ketamine has a wide range of effects in humans, including analgesia, anesthesia, hallucinations, elevated blood pressure, and bronchodilation.[6] Ketamine is primarily used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, usually in combination with some sedative drug. Other uses include sedation in intensive care, analgesia (particularly in emergency medicine), and treatment of bronchospasm. It has been shown to be effective in treating depression in patients with bipolar disorder who have not responded to other anti-depressants.[7] It is also a popular anesthetic in veterinary medicine. Ketamine is a chiral compound. Most pharmaceutical preparations of ketamine are racemic; however, some brands reportedly have (mostly undocumented) differences in enantiomeric proportions. The more active enantiomer, (S)-ketamine, is also available for medical use under the brand name Ketanest S.[8] (R)-ketamine, (S)-ketamine & racemic (R,S)-ketamine all have qualitatively separate distinct effect profiles, although S has the most active potency. Ketamine is a core medicine in the World Health Organization's "Essential Drugs List", which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic health care system.[9] Answered by Tamela Olvey 1 year ago.


Ketamine???
what are the negative effects of ketamine on the nervous system? i cant seem to find it on the internet...just the medical effects...help me?? Asked by Glennis Dillinger 1 year ago.

we dont use ketamine much anylonger. you should never play with it or take it on your own. Ketamine is a drug for use in human and veterinary medicine developed by Parke-Davis (today a part of Pfizer) in 1962. Its hydrochloride salt is sold as Ketanest, Ketaset, and Ketalar. Pharmacologically, ketamine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist,[1] and at high, fully anesthetic level doses, ketamine has also been found to bind to opioid μ receptors and sigma receptors[2]. Like other drugs of this class such as tiletamine and phencyclidine (PCP), it induces a state referred to as "dissociative anesthesia"[3] and is used as a recreational drug. Ketamine has a wide range of effects in humans, including analgesia, anesthesia, hallucinations, elevated blood pressure, and bronchodilation.[citation needed] It is primarily used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, usually in combination with some sedative drug. Other uses include sedation in intensive care, analgesia (particularly in emergency medicine), and treatment of bronchospasm. It is also a popular anesthetic in veterinary medicine. Ketamine is a chiral compound. Most pharmaceutical preparations of ketamine are racemic; however, some brands reportedly have (mostly undocumented) differences in enantiomeric proportions. The more active enantiomer, S-ketamine, is also available for medical use under the brand name Ketanest S.[4] Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Medical use 2.1 Experimental antidepressant use 2.2 Treatment of addiction 2.3 Treatment of reflex sympathetic dystrophy 2.4 Pharmacological model of schizophrenia 3 Neuropharmacology 4 Recreational use 4.1 Illicit sale 4.2 Methods of use 4.3 Psychological effects 5 Long-term side effects 6 References 7 See also 8 External links [edit] History Ketamine was developed by Dr. Calvin Stevens of Wayne State University. It was then developed by Parke-Davis in 1962 as part of an effort to find a safer anaesthetic alternative to Phencyclidine (PCP), which was more likely to cause hallucinations, neurotoxicity and seizures. The drug was first given to American soldiers during the Vietnam War. It is still widely used in humans. There may be some evidence that ketamine has the potential to cause emergence phenomena because of the drug's possible psychotomimetic effects.[citation needed] It is also used widely in veterinary medicine, or as a battlefield anaesthetic in developing nations.[5] Ketamine's side effects eventually made it a popular psychedelic in 1965. The drug was used in psychiatric and other academic research through the 1970s, culminating in 1978 with the publishing of John Lilly's The Scientist and Marcia Moore and Howard Alltounian's Journeys into the Bright World, which documented the unusual phenomenology of ketamine intoxication.[6] The incidence of recreational ketamine use increased through the end of the century, especially in the context of raves and other parties. The increase in illicit use prompted ketamine's placement in Schedule III of the United States Controlled Substance Act in August 1999.[7] In the United Kingdom, it became outlawed and labeled a Class C drug on January 1, 2006.[8] In Canada ketamine is classified as a Schedule I narcotic.[9] In Hong Kong, as of year 2000, ketamine is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance. It can only be used legally by health professionals, for university research purposes, or with a physician's prescription.[10] [edit] Medical use 10 ml bottles of ketamineContraindications: Alcohol Other sedatives Stimulants Side effects: Severe: Impairs all senses, especially: Sight Balance Sense of time Cardiovascular: Partial depressant Gastrointestinal: Nausea Musculoskeletal: Relaxant Neurological: Analgesia Respiratory: Partial depressant/stimulant In medical settings, ketamine is usually injected intravenously or intramuscularly,[11] but it is also effective when insufflated, smoked, or taken orally.[12] Since it suppresses breathing much less than most other available anaesthetics,[13] ketamine is still used in human medicine as an anesthetic, however, due to the severe hallucinations caused by ketamine, there are better anesthetics for victims with unknown medical history (e.g., from traffic accidents). Ketamine can be used in podiatry and other minor surgery, and occasionally for the treatment of migraine. There is ongoing research in France, the Netherlands, Russia, and the U.S. into the drug's usefulness in pain therapy, depression suppression, and for the treatment of alcoholism[14] and heroin addiction.[15] In veterinary anesthesia, ketamine is often used for its anaesthetic and analgesic effects on cats, dogs, rabbits, rats, and other small animals. Veterinarians often use ketamine with sedative drugs to produce balanced anaesthesia and analgesia, and as a constant rate infusion to help prevent pain wind-up. Ketamine is used to manage pain among large animals, though it has less effect on bovines. It is the primary intravenous anaesthetic agent used in equine surgery, often in conjunction with detomidine and thiopental, or sometimes Glyceryl guaiacolate. Ketamine may be used in small doses (0.1–0.5 mg/kg/h) as a local anesthetic, particularly for the treatment of pain associated with movement and neuropathic pain.[16] It has the added benefit of counter-acting spinal sensitization or wind-up phenomena experienced with chronic pain. At these doses, the psychotropic side effects are less apparent and well managed with benzodiazepines.[17] Ketamine is a co-analgesic, and so is most effective when used alongside a low-dose opioid; while it does have analgesic effects by itself, the higher doses required can cause disorienting side effects.[17] The combination of ketamine with an opioid is, however, particularly useful for pain caused by cancer.[18] The effect of ketamine on the respiratory and circulatory systems is different from that of other anaesthetics. When used at anaesthetic doses, it will usually stimulate rather than depress the circulatory system.[19] It is sometimes possible to perform ketamine anaesthesia without protective measures to the airways. Ketamine is also a potent analgesic and can be used in sub-anaesthetic doses to relieve acute pain; however, its psychotropic properties must be taken into account. Patients have reported vivid hallucinations, "going into other worlds" or "seeing God" while anesthetized, and these unwanted psychological side-effects have reduced the use of ketamine in human medicine. They can, however, usually be avoided by concomitant application of a sedative such as a benzodiazepine.[17] Low-dose ketamine is recognized for its potential effectiveness in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), according to a retrospective review published in the October 2004 issue of Pain Medicine.[20] Although low-dose ketamine therapy is established as a generally safe procedure, reported side effects in some patients have included hallucinations, dizziness, lightheadedness and nausea. Therefore nurses administering ketamine to patients with CRPS should only do so in a setting where a trained physician is available if needed to assess potential adverse effects on patients.[21] [edit] Experimental antidepressant use 100g of KetamineWhen treating patients suffering from complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) with a low-dose (subanesthetic) ketamine infusion, it was observed that some patients made a significant recovery from associated depression. This recovery was not formally documented, as the primary concern was the treatment of the patient's pain. It was not possible to quantify to what degree depression recovery was secondary to the patient's recovery from CRPS. Based on this result, it was thought that a low-dose (subanesthetic) infusion of ketamine was worth a trial in patients who were suffering from treatment-resistant depression without other physical or psychiatric illness. Correll, et al gave ketamine intravenously to patients commencing at 15–20 mg/h (0.1–0.2 mg/kg/h) and the dose increased until a maximum tolerated dose was achieved. This dose was assumed to be a therapeutic dose and was maintained for 5 days. Patients were able to eat, drink, watch television, or read. They could feel inebriated and/or unsteady when walking. If hallucinations occurred, the dose was to be reduced. The patients' normal medications were continued as it was feared that stopping them might result in severe depressive episodes. Before and following each treatment with ketamine, at patient clinic visits, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) were obtained. Two of the patients were described with impressive improvement in depression being maintained for 12 months in patient A and recurrence at 2.5 months and 9 months in patient B.[22] The National Institute of Health News reports that a study of 18 patients has found that ketamine significantly improved treatment-resistant major depression within hours of injection.[23] The improvement lasted up to one week after the single dose.[24] The patients in the study were previously treatment resistant, having tried an average of six other treatments that failed. NIMH director Dr. Thomas Insel said in the paper: "To my knowledge, this is the first report of any medication or other treatment that results in such a pronounced, rapid, prolonged response with a single dose. These were very treatment-resistant patients." The researchers apparently attribute the effect to ketamine being an NMDA receptor antagonist.[25] Those findings of Zarate et al corroborate earlier findings by Berman et al.[26] However Zarate et al do raise some concerns Answered by Tanika Mayson 1 year ago.

BE CAREFUL. While low doses of Ketamine can increase heart-rate, at higher doses it depresses consciousness and breathing and is extremely dangerous to combine with downers like alcohol, Valium or GHB. Frequent use can cause disruptions in consciousness and lead to neuroses or other mental disorders. Ketamine can cause a tremendous psychological dependence. The dissociation from one's consciousness experienced with ketamine can be highly seductive to some people, and there are many cases of ketamine addiction. Ketamine is illegal and possession can result in long prison terms. Answered by Carmela Chruch 1 year ago.

Ketamine has actually been proposed as a therapeutic treatment for depression. It's early so I can't say anything about it. However I don't recommend doing it on your own time. One fun fact is the some studies suggest that diet and exercise are equally as effective as the leading medications. Without going deep into the mire of chemistry, if you eat junk food and stay home, it makes perfect sense to me that your brain would do the things it does in depression. For example, stress chemicals are released to just wake up in the morning. Not to mention if something is stressing you out. These chemicals are meant to make you run from the lion that is trying to eat you or beat the hell out of the guy stealing your baby. In the modern world when we get those chemicals at work or school, then go home and sleep, no wonder we are depressed, overweight and sickly. These chemicals have been shown to cause brain damage when built up too long, as well as opening the bodies defenses to illness and cancer. A process called excitotoxcixty makes schizophrenic people the way they are and causes you to lose brain tissue when you are depressed. Long story short if you are that into spending loads of money on drugs to feel better, why not get some depression medication? Sitting at home isn't going to make it better. Answered by Wendie Rings 1 year ago.

I used ketamine on mice during experiments...one thing we had to watch for was the mice coming out of their sleep. I think falling into a coma is also a risk for humans. Ketamine is a controlled substance so contact your local fire department if you come across any. Answered by Darcy Brooms 1 year ago.

This Site Might Help You. RE: ketamine??? what are the negative effects of ketamine on the nervous system? i cant seem to find it on the internet...just the medical effects...help me?? Answered by Bret Rockett 1 year ago.

Acupuncture, which involves inserting thin needles into various points on your body, may reduce peripheral neuropathy symptoms. Answered by Andra Pekrul 1 year ago.

1-it increases intracranial pressure 2-causes hallucinations and nightmares.sometimes sweet hallucinations happen too so it is called BAD RIDE when you take it for abuse. 3-can drive to suicide if used by mentally ill patients. Answered by Humberto Liberto 1 year ago.


My german shepherd is 10 years old. Last December, we noticed that he hasn't poop in 3 days. brought him to?
the vet and did manual evacuation and monthly since then. will he develop tolerance with ketalar? what is the best analgesia or sedation for him? Asked by Linh Mudrick 1 year ago.

Only a qualified vet will be able to answer this.. Ask them.. Answered by Willene Burruss 1 year ago.


How much anesthetic (Ketamine) can be used to knock someone out without harming them?
EDIT: To the gentleman who used and implied cuss word, I was not aware of that. Would you recommend a more realistic option? Asked by Tamisha Wunderly 1 year ago.

Just to correct some of the incorrect information you have gotten, ketamine is a general anaesthetic used in humans under brand name Ketalar. Ketamine also happens to be one of the safest anaesthetics to use without normal monitoring of vital signs or easy access to life support systems (however there are still risks). In fact ketamine tends to be the most commonly used drug in disaster situations when doctors may not have access to full medical facilities due to its safety and due to the fact most other general anaesthetics are much more dangerious to use without proper monitors. Ketamine is also effective when used alone whereas most other drugs must be used in combination (such as propofol with remifentanil). However to avoid side effects ketamine is nearly always given with a benzodiazepine like diazepam. Ketamine is dosed by weight and a single dose does not last for very long. I have provided a link to the official FDA Ketalar prescribing information which lists specific dosing information. Answered by Keenan Lindburg 1 year ago.

How Much Is Ketamine Answered by Reyna Odum 1 year ago.

If it is just on the skin it will not kill them. However I assume you have other plans. But since you said syringe full just find out what the smallest syringe is and use that in the story? Answered by Francina Munns 1 year ago.

Take another tack, serious felony for murder charge. Without constant monitoring, as in anesthesia, any amount could be fatal. Take another story line, this one would be highly criticized by any editor (or teacher). Answered by Neal Soderlund 1 year ago.

WTF is "syringe full" supposed to mean? *&* That's an ANIMAL tranq...NOT a human sedative. Answered by Emery Voelkel 1 year ago.


What medical reason is Marijuana ( cannabis ) not legal?
I have seen all the commercials about the harms of Methamphetamine use but also know that it is a prescription for young kids (Desoxyn). Ketalar (Ketamine ), PCP (Sernylan) are both similar and both available in Rx form to name a few familiar street drugs that have "Medical" use. Aspirin kills over... Asked by Gloria Mikovec 1 year ago.

I have seen all the commercials about the harms of Methamphetamine use but also know that it is a prescription for young kids (Desoxyn). Ketalar (Ketamine ), PCP (Sernylan) are both similar and both available in Rx form to name a few familiar street drugs that have "Medical" use. Aspirin kills over 500 people a year. I was personally admitted for combining Rx meds ( Oxycodone and Xanax) at the prescribed level. Only if there was a drug that calmed both pain and anxiety that was safe. Deaths attributed to Marijuana? 0. Answered by Deon Hanneken 1 year ago.

A common mis-perception is that it is illegal because people smoke it. I've come to believe that it's all about the industrial uses. Hemp was the top crop worldwide before it was made illegal. It was made illegal at the same time that many synthetic fibers and chemicals were being invented and marketed. This was also right around the time that a hemp paper was developed that could run in printing presses. (previously although hemp paper has a long history, it wouldn't run reliably in the new presses). Fake news, scientific studies, and advertising/education; demonized hemp and convinced the public that people, (especially black people) would run riot in the streets and rape women (especially white women) ; if hemp was available. The "crusade" and the eventual prohibition put synthetic rope and fiber producers, and the logging/paper industry at a great advantage and effectively ended any further use or research into hemp. Even though industrial hemp is effectively not smoke-able, it was included in this prohibition and classed as a drug. That would be just like outlawing chopsticks because bigger pieces of wood could be used as a weapon. Although during the world war, it was briefly legal and farmers were encouraged to grow hemp for fiber and rope. It was back to illegal drug status immediately after. Ever scientific study, social study, psychological study and legal study has recommended it be declassified and decriminalized. Politicians routinely re-write and reverse their own studies' conclusions to support keeping it illegal. There is no study that links usage to anything more than temporary laziness, slight hunger, and some short term loss of memory. As in " what were we just talking about?, Oh yea, let's get some donuts.". No other crime has so little justification to remain on the books. No other current product is kept illegal under these circumstances. You could find literally hundreds of household products that could give you a more severe intoxication effect and are more harmful to you and the environment, that are perfectly legal and sold to anyone at your local store. There are hundreds of plants living near your home or readily available that can be used as intoxicants. And yet,,,, hemp rope is illegal and classified as a drug. Doesn't that sound like fraud to you? Answered by Keith Ramones 1 year ago.

I'm sure there has been a death related to Marijuana, just as they do in Car accidents with alcohol, Im sure someones been killed in a wreck stoned. Needless to say, Marijuana does seem to be the less lethal of all the evils the pharmaceutical companies keep pumping out. With all the medications on T.V. and their 200 side effects list (including heart attack or death) lmao. I believe the U.S. banned Marijuana because they weren't making the profit from it, not because it's as dangerous as the FDA or Government makes it out to be. Look at all of the other drugs, Opiates, Benzos, Alcohol, Hallucinogens, they can kill strictly from overdose, unlike Marijuana, they can kill with liver toxcitiy, Marijuana cant. Yes , Marijuana releases carcinogens when it is burned, Carcinogens can lead to cancer. But, Marjiuana have never been linked to a case of cancer solely by itself. It's not legal because people are making money, and a living off of it, and if someone is profiting, and the U.S. doesn't see any of that money, they get angry and do what ever they can to stop it from happening . Like wasting billions on this anti-drug war BS. U.S. just wants to spread terror into people to get their control and money. Answered by Randolph Pollan 1 year ago.

It's all about the money.I am a cancer survivor and found the only thing that really helped me thru chemo was marijuana.Never been any cases of lung cancer attributed to pot,I now prefer to cook with it in medicinal/maintenance doses. Answered by Mora Fergerson 1 year ago.

It's illegal because it can cause lung cancer, mental health problems and other problems and HAS cause deaths but often makes the user unambitious and cause a lack of empathy. Answered by Jamaal Satoe 1 year ago.

Marijuana was criminalized due to racism. Harry Anslinger wrote "it made darkies feel as good as whites". Answered by Nana Martirano 1 year ago.

There are no medical reasons, other than it is smoking. No amount of smoking is good for you, but there is still no reason it is illegal. Answered by Cher Thompsom 1 year ago.


Why is heroin illegal and other opiates, even stronger ones, legal?
heroin is illegal. but many other opiates, even stronger ones such as hydromorphone, are legal and prescribed every day. how is there any logic behind this at all? Asked by Carrol Honerkamp 1 year ago.

Heroin metablizes a a faster rate than morphine leading to a greater addiction rate as it delivers a faster more intense high. Some medications (hydrocodone) is absorbed as Hydromorphone so it would be hard to criminalize something that found in that many places. GHB (Date rape drug) is illegal but there are completely legal cleaning agents that are absorbed as GHB, making the GHB precursor perfectly legal and sold by your local chemical company. PCP (Sernylan), Ketamine (Ketalar) , Meth (Desoxyn) to name a few are legal drugs (for kids) that are illegal when in the hands of someone that is using them to get "High" on. Marijuana is the safest drug on the planet and it is illegal. Narcotic in a medical sense refers to ONLY Opiates. To answer your question simply the ones who make the law have no clue about medicine or the real world for that matter. Legal does NOT mean safe. Answered by Melynda Thorell 1 year ago.

Hydromorphone isn't stronger than heroin and it also isn't commonly prescribed, I've never heard of anyone being prescribed it. Things like vicodin and percocet are generally prescribed for pain. Oxycontin will probably be pulled off of the market soon since it has such high rates for abuse. But even so, at least with oxycontin it's an easy to monitor amount if people are using it to get high, where as with heroin you don't really know exactly what you're getting and what you're consuming and therefore it's easier to overdose. I agree though, it is a problem. People usually think that since a drug is "legal" that it's safer to take and then kids get addicted to oxycontin and then move up to smoking heroin and then run out of money for that and start shooting it because it's cheaper. Opiate addictions are out of control right now and it's a sad thing that so many people are in over their heads and ruining their lives. Answered by Orlando Schloss 1 year ago.

Rachel, the only reason OxyContin is regulated is because it is legal. If it is pulled off the market, we'll have adulterated oxycodone on the black market just like adulterated heroin. Likewise, if heroin were legal, its purity too can be regulated. So street purity is a drug law issue, not a property inherent to these drugs. As for why heroin is illegal, you have to look to look into the history of the drug. Back in the early 1900s when no one knew about the dangers of opiate addiction and people took heroin for common colds, the only opiates that were available were codeine (weak), and morphine and heroin (highly addictive). So drug laws were formulated against heroin, and not against oxycodone which didn't even exist. This helped shape the social attitude towards heroin, whereas legal opiates like oxycodone, which is just as euphoric and addictive, do not carry the stigma that heroin does. Politicians aren't biochemists. Answered by Kary Argentieri 1 year ago.

Is Heroin Legal Or Illegal Answered by Porfirio Linz 1 year ago.

Heroin was actually criminalized because back in the late 1800s and early 1900s people used it as a cough suppressant. Many people were becoming addicted and died from it, so they criminalized it. Other opiates like oxycontin and hydromorphone are much safer and i guess healthier for you than black tar herion. These drugs are more addictive because they are synthetic. Answered by Dustin Foore 1 year ago.

Because Heroin is extremely addictive. Whereas hydromorphine ect is not so addictive Answered by Sudie Zechman 1 year ago.


What are the effects of sedatives?
include examples Asked by Imelda Muncil 1 year ago.

A sedative is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement. At higher doses it may result in slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. Doses of sedatives such as benzodiazepines when used as a hypnotic to induce sleep tend to be higher than those used to relieve anxiety, since low doses suffice to provide calming sedative effects. Sedatives can be abused to produce an overly-calming effect (alcohol being the classic and most common sedating drug). At high doses or when they are abused, many of these drugs can cause unconsciousness and even death. There is some overlap between the terms "sedative" and hypnotic. The term "sedative-hypnotic" has been used to describe these joint effects, or the medications causing these joint effects. MeSH (i.e., Medical Subject Headings) classifies these agents in a single category, under CNS depressants. However, advances in pharmacology have permitted more specific targeting of receptors, and greater selectivity of agents, which necessitates greater precision when describing these agents and their effects: (1) Anxiolytic refers specifically to the effect upon anxiety. (However, some benzodiazipines are sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics.) (2) Tranquilizer can refer to anxiolytics or antipsychotics. (3) Soporific and sleeping pill are near-synonyms for hypnotics. Types of sedatives: (1) Barbiturates: Amobarbital (Amytal), pentobarbital (Nembutal), secobarbital (Seconal), Phenobarbitol (Luminal). (2) Benzodiazepines ("minor tranquilizers"): Clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), estazolam (Prosom), flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), lorazepam (Ativan), midazolam (Versed), nitrazepam (Mogadon), oxazepam (Serax), triazolam (Halcion), temazepam (Restoril, Normison, Planum, Tenox, and Temaze), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), alprazolam (Xanax). (3) Herbal sedatives: ashwagandha, catnip, kava (Piper methysticum), mandrake, cannabis, valerian. (4) Solvent sedatives: chloral hydrate (Noctec), diethyl ether (Ether), ethyl alcohol (alcoholic beverage), methyl trichloride (Chloroform). (5) Nonbenzodiazepine sedatives: eszopiclone (Lunesta), zaleplon (Sonata), zolpidem (Ambien), zopiclone (Imovane, Zimovane). (6) Uncategorized Sedatives: carisoprodol (Soma), clomethiazole (clomethiazole), gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Thalidomide, ethchlorvynol (Placidyl), glutethimide (Doriden), ketamine (Ketalar, Ketaset), methaqualone (Sopor, Quaalude), methyprylon (Noludar), ramelteon (Rozerem). Answered by Tera Brogan 1 year ago.

What Are Sedatives Answered by Garth Esposto 1 year ago.


Is ketamine (ketalar) an appropriate anesthetic for a pt with uncontrolled hypertension? why or why not?
Asked by Sandra Cutt 1 year ago.

LOL yarbigy! You can't make blanket statements about what drug is or is not appropriate unless you know a lot more about a specific patient and specific case. In general, we might avoid ketamine in the face of uncontrolled hypertension, because ketamine will raise blood pressure. However, in a pre-eclamptic patient with an abruption needing an emergent C-section, I might use it, as propofol or pentothal might drop the blood pressure in this volume contracted patient to unacceptably low levels. It completely depends on the situation. The dose of ketamine is also important. Small doses, like 10-20 mg, used as an adjuvant for analgesia are probably not going to have much influence on the blood pressure. We don't use ketamine as a sole anesthetic. We use it as part of a balanced technique, along with a handful of other drugs. Answered by Bree Hislope 1 year ago.

I found this quote off of a website that may help you: 'Cardiovascular Blood pressure and pulse rate are frequently elevated following administration of ketamine alone.' It looks like that it would not be appropriate for a hypertensive patient when given alone, but it could be given in conjunction with other drugs to counteract the effect. But still, I wouldn't use it on someone who's circulatory system was compromised. But like almost all other drugs, the polar opposite effect can be seen (Hypotension). Hope this helps. PS - Vets use it as a cat sedative all the time... I sure wouldn't want to be sedated with anything used to knock out cats!! Answered by Kathryne Gorden 1 year ago.

no, because it can raise blood pressure, or yes, if you administer it with hypotensive agents. for the person saying its used on cats, wouldnt want ect. I also know vets use desflurane, isoflurane, nitrous oxide, pentobarbital, thiopental fentanyl and hydromorphone as part of their anestesia regiment, I guess the medical profession better never use any of the standard/common anestesias or painkillers on you, huh? *facepalm* pagolin, yes I know it requires to asses the patient and situation on hand/in person to really know the exact answer, but I was giving a very general answer that hypertension must be considered when using ketamine as an anestesia agent. Also, we use it as a primary, and sole anestesia agent, as we cant, in the field, use anything that depresses breathing too much, as we lack ventilation except manually with a bag. Answered by Sunny Tolly 1 year ago.

The effect of ketamine on the respiratory and circulatory systems is different from that of other anesthetics. When used at anesthetic doses, it will usually stimulate rather than depress the circulatory system. So should not use it in this patient. Answered by Michael Axman 1 year ago.


How safe is ketamine?
im doing a drug S A and i don't know hos safe ketamine it please help :) thank you. Asked by Tessie Goodpasture 1 year ago.

You are playing with fire. Ketamine is a drug used in human and veterinary medicine. Its hydrochloride salt is sold as Ketanest, Ketaset, and Ketalar. Pharmacologically, ketamine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist.[2] At high, fully anesthetic level doses, ketamine has also been found to bind to opioid μ receptors and sigma receptors.[3][4] Like other drugs of this class such as tiletamine and phencyclidine (PCP), it induces a state referred to as "dissociative anesthesia"[5] and is used as a recreational drug. Ketamine has a wide range of effects in humans, including analgesia, anesthesia, hallucinations, elevated blood pressure, and bronchodilation.[6] Ketamine is primarily used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, usually in combination with some sedative drug. Other uses include sedation in intensive care, analgesia (particularly in emergency medicine), and treatment of bronchospasm. It has been shown to be effective in treating depression in patients with bipolar disorder who have not responded to other anti-depressants.[7] It is also a popular anesthetic in veterinary medicine. Ketamine is a chiral compound. Most pharmaceutical preparations of ketamine are racemic; however, some brands reportedly have (mostly undocumented) differences in enantiomeric proportions. The more active enantiomer, (S)-ketamine, is also available for medical use under the brand name Ketanest S.[8] (R)-ketamine, (S)-ketamine & racemic (R,S)-ketamine all have qualitatively separate distinct effect profiles, although S has the most active potency. Ketamine is a core medicine in the World Health Organization's "Essential Drugs List", which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic health care system.[9] Answered by Kia Tavolacci 1 year ago.


Ketamine???
what are the negative effects of ketamine on the nervous system? i cant seem to find it on the internet...just the medical effects...help me?? Asked by Mirella Betha 1 year ago.

we dont use ketamine much anylonger. you should never play with it or take it on your own. Ketamine is a drug for use in human and veterinary medicine developed by Parke-Davis (today a part of Pfizer) in 1962. Its hydrochloride salt is sold as Ketanest, Ketaset, and Ketalar. Pharmacologically, ketamine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist,[1] and at high, fully anesthetic level doses, ketamine has also been found to bind to opioid μ receptors and sigma receptors[2]. Like other drugs of this class such as tiletamine and phencyclidine (PCP), it induces a state referred to as "dissociative anesthesia"[3] and is used as a recreational drug. Ketamine has a wide range of effects in humans, including analgesia, anesthesia, hallucinations, elevated blood pressure, and bronchodilation.[citation needed] It is primarily used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, usually in combination with some sedative drug. Other uses include sedation in intensive care, analgesia (particularly in emergency medicine), and treatment of bronchospasm. It is also a popular anesthetic in veterinary medicine. Ketamine is a chiral compound. Most pharmaceutical preparations of ketamine are racemic; however, some brands reportedly have (mostly undocumented) differences in enantiomeric proportions. The more active enantiomer, S-ketamine, is also available for medical use under the brand name Ketanest S.[4] Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Medical use 2.1 Experimental antidepressant use 2.2 Treatment of addiction 2.3 Treatment of reflex sympathetic dystrophy 2.4 Pharmacological model of schizophrenia 3 Neuropharmacology 4 Recreational use 4.1 Illicit sale 4.2 Methods of use 4.3 Psychological effects 5 Long-term side effects 6 References 7 See also 8 External links [edit] History Ketamine was developed by Dr. Calvin Stevens of Wayne State University. It was then developed by Parke-Davis in 1962 as part of an effort to find a safer anaesthetic alternative to Phencyclidine (PCP), which was more likely to cause hallucinations, neurotoxicity and seizures. The drug was first given to American soldiers during the Vietnam War. It is still widely used in humans. There may be some evidence that ketamine has the potential to cause emergence phenomena because of the drug's possible psychotomimetic effects.[citation needed] It is also used widely in veterinary medicine, or as a battlefield anaesthetic in developing nations.[5] Ketamine's side effects eventually made it a popular psychedelic in 1965. The drug was used in psychiatric and other academic research through the 1970s, culminating in 1978 with the publishing of John Lilly's The Scientist and Marcia Moore and Howard Alltounian's Journeys into the Bright World, which documented the unusual phenomenology of ketamine intoxication.[6] The incidence of recreational ketamine use increased through the end of the century, especially in the context of raves and other parties. The increase in illicit use prompted ketamine's placement in Schedule III of the United States Controlled Substance Act in August 1999.[7] In the United Kingdom, it became outlawed and labeled a Class C drug on January 1, 2006.[8] In Canada ketamine is classified as a Schedule I narcotic.[9] In Hong Kong, as of year 2000, ketamine is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance. It can only be used legally by health professionals, for university research purposes, or with a physician's prescription.[10] [edit] Medical use 10 ml bottles of ketamineContraindications: Alcohol Other sedatives Stimulants Side effects: Severe: Impairs all senses, especially: Sight Balance Sense of time Cardiovascular: Partial depressant Gastrointestinal: Nausea Musculoskeletal: Relaxant Neurological: Analgesia Respiratory: Partial depressant/stimulant In medical settings, ketamine is usually injected intravenously or intramuscularly,[11] but it is also effective when insufflated, smoked, or taken orally.[12] Since it suppresses breathing much less than most other available anaesthetics,[13] ketamine is still used in human medicine as an anesthetic, however, due to the severe hallucinations caused by ketamine, there are better anesthetics for victims with unknown medical history (e.g., from traffic accidents). Ketamine can be used in podiatry and other minor surgery, and occasionally for the treatment of migraine. There is ongoing research in France, the Netherlands, Russia, and the U.S. into the drug's usefulness in pain therapy, depression suppression, and for the treatment of alcoholism[14] and heroin addiction.[15] In veterinary anesthesia, ketamine is often used for its anaesthetic and analgesic effects on cats, dogs, rabbits, rats, and other small animals. Veterinarians often use ketamine with sedative drugs to produce balanced anaesthesia and analgesia, and as a constant rate infusion to help prevent pain wind-up. Ketamine is used to manage pain among large animals, though it has less effect on bovines. It is the primary intravenous anaesthetic agent used in equine surgery, often in conjunction with detomidine and thiopental, or sometimes Glyceryl guaiacolate. Ketamine may be used in small doses (0.1–0.5 mg/kg/h) as a local anesthetic, particularly for the treatment of pain associated with movement and neuropathic pain.[16] It has the added benefit of counter-acting spinal sensitization or wind-up phenomena experienced with chronic pain. At these doses, the psychotropic side effects are less apparent and well managed with benzodiazepines.[17] Ketamine is a co-analgesic, and so is most effective when used alongside a low-dose opioid; while it does have analgesic effects by itself, the higher doses required can cause disorienting side effects.[17] The combination of ketamine with an opioid is, however, particularly useful for pain caused by cancer.[18] The effect of ketamine on the respiratory and circulatory systems is different from that of other anaesthetics. When used at anaesthetic doses, it will usually stimulate rather than depress the circulatory system.[19] It is sometimes possible to perform ketamine anaesthesia without protective measures to the airways. Ketamine is also a potent analgesic and can be used in sub-anaesthetic doses to relieve acute pain; however, its psychotropic properties must be taken into account. Patients have reported vivid hallucinations, "going into other worlds" or "seeing God" while anesthetized, and these unwanted psychological side-effects have reduced the use of ketamine in human medicine. They can, however, usually be avoided by concomitant application of a sedative such as a benzodiazepine.[17] Low-dose ketamine is recognized for its potential effectiveness in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), according to a retrospective review published in the October 2004 issue of Pain Medicine.[20] Although low-dose ketamine therapy is established as a generally safe procedure, reported side effects in some patients have included hallucinations, dizziness, lightheadedness and nausea. Therefore nurses administering ketamine to patients with CRPS should only do so in a setting where a trained physician is available if needed to assess potential adverse effects on patients.[21] [edit] Experimental antidepressant use 100g of KetamineWhen treating patients suffering from complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) with a low-dose (subanesthetic) ketamine infusion, it was observed that some patients made a significant recovery from associated depression. This recovery was not formally documented, as the primary concern was the treatment of the patient's pain. It was not possible to quantify to what degree depression recovery was secondary to the patient's recovery from CRPS. Based on this result, it was thought that a low-dose (subanesthetic) infusion of ketamine was worth a trial in patients who were suffering from treatment-resistant depression without other physical or psychiatric illness. Correll, et al gave ketamine intravenously to patients commencing at 15–20 mg/h (0.1–0.2 mg/kg/h) and the dose increased until a maximum tolerated dose was achieved. This dose was assumed to be a therapeutic dose and was maintained for 5 days. Patients were able to eat, drink, watch television, or read. They could feel inebriated and/or unsteady when walking. If hallucinations occurred, the dose was to be reduced. The patients' normal medications were continued as it was feared that stopping them might result in severe depressive episodes. Before and following each treatment with ketamine, at patient clinic visits, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) were obtained. Two of the patients were described with impressive improvement in depression being maintained for 12 months in patient A and recurrence at 2.5 months and 9 months in patient B.[22] The National Institute of Health News reports that a study of 18 patients has found that ketamine significantly improved treatment-resistant major depression within hours of injection.[23] The improvement lasted up to one week after the single dose.[24] The patients in the study were previously treatment resistant, having tried an average of six other treatments that failed. NIMH director Dr. Thomas Insel said in the paper: "To my knowledge, this is the first report of any medication or other treatment that results in such a pronounced, rapid, prolonged response with a single dose. These were very treatment-resistant patients." The researchers apparently attribute the effect to ketamine being an NMDA receptor antagonist.[25] Those findings of Zarate et al corroborate earlier findings by Berman et al.[26] However Zarate et al do raise some concerns Answered by Wiley Lonero 1 year ago.

BE CAREFUL. While low doses of Ketamine can increase heart-rate, at higher doses it depresses consciousness and breathing and is extremely dangerous to combine with downers like alcohol, Valium or GHB. Frequent use can cause disruptions in consciousness and lead to neuroses or other mental disorders. Ketamine can cause a tremendous psychological dependence. The dissociation from one's consciousness experienced with ketamine can be highly seductive to some people, and there are many cases of ketamine addiction. Ketamine is illegal and possession can result in long prison terms. Answered by Ellena Whildin 1 year ago.

Ketamine has actually been proposed as a therapeutic treatment for depression. It's early so I can't say anything about it. However I don't recommend doing it on your own time. One fun fact is the some studies suggest that diet and exercise are equally as effective as the leading medications. Without going deep into the mire of chemistry, if you eat junk food and stay home, it makes perfect sense to me that your brain would do the things it does in depression. For example, stress chemicals are released to just wake up in the morning. Not to mention if something is stressing you out. These chemicals are meant to make you run from the lion that is trying to eat you or beat the hell out of the guy stealing your baby. In the modern world when we get those chemicals at work or school, then go home and sleep, no wonder we are depressed, overweight and sickly. These chemicals have been shown to cause brain damage when built up too long, as well as opening the bodies defenses to illness and cancer. A process called excitotoxcixty makes schizophrenic people the way they are and causes you to lose brain tissue when you are depressed. Long story short if you are that into spending loads of money on drugs to feel better, why not get some depression medication? Sitting at home isn't going to make it better. Answered by Lucius Block 1 year ago.

I used ketamine on mice during experiments...one thing we had to watch for was the mice coming out of their sleep. I think falling into a coma is also a risk for humans. Ketamine is a controlled substance so contact your local fire department if you come across any. Answered by Devora Crispino 1 year ago.

This Site Might Help You. RE: ketamine??? what are the negative effects of ketamine on the nervous system? i cant seem to find it on the internet...just the medical effects...help me?? Answered by Marcia Peerbolt 1 year ago.

Acupuncture, which involves inserting thin needles into various points on your body, may reduce peripheral neuropathy symptoms. Answered by Rachal Mateos 1 year ago.

1-it increases intracranial pressure 2-causes hallucinations and nightmares.sometimes sweet hallucinations happen too so it is called BAD RIDE when you take it for abuse. 3-can drive to suicide if used by mentally ill patients. Answered by Lucile Dummer 1 year ago.


My german shepherd is 10 years old. Last December, we noticed that he hasn't poop in 3 days. brought him to?
the vet and did manual evacuation and monthly since then. will he develop tolerance with ketalar? what is the best analgesia or sedation for him? Asked by Clotilde Lalin 1 year ago.

Only a qualified vet will be able to answer this.. Ask them.. Answered by Hue Mcfatter 1 year ago.


How much anesthetic (Ketamine) can be used to knock someone out without harming them?
EDIT: To the gentleman who used and implied cuss word, I was not aware of that. Would you recommend a more realistic option? Asked by Wally Yagle 1 year ago.

Just to correct some of the incorrect information you have gotten, ketamine is a general anaesthetic used in humans under brand name Ketalar. Ketamine also happens to be one of the safest anaesthetics to use without normal monitoring of vital signs or easy access to life support systems (however there are still risks). In fact ketamine tends to be the most commonly used drug in disaster situations when doctors may not have access to full medical facilities due to its safety and due to the fact most other general anaesthetics are much more dangerious to use without proper monitors. Ketamine is also effective when used alone whereas most other drugs must be used in combination (such as propofol with remifentanil). However to avoid side effects ketamine is nearly always given with a benzodiazepine like diazepam. Ketamine is dosed by weight and a single dose does not last for very long. I have provided a link to the official FDA Ketalar prescribing information which lists specific dosing information. Answered by Mona Koetting 1 year ago.

How Much Is Ketamine Answered by Krissy Rodabaugh 1 year ago.

If it is just on the skin it will not kill them. However I assume you have other plans. But since you said syringe full just find out what the smallest syringe is and use that in the story? Answered by Taina Grow 1 year ago.

Take another tack, serious felony for murder charge. Without constant monitoring, as in anesthesia, any amount could be fatal. Take another story line, this one would be highly criticized by any editor (or teacher). Answered by Daniela Medford 1 year ago.

WTF is "syringe full" supposed to mean? *&* That's an ANIMAL tranq...NOT a human sedative. Answered by Theodora Deren 1 year ago.


What medical reason is Marijuana ( cannabis ) not legal?
I have seen all the commercials about the harms of Methamphetamine use but also know that it is a prescription for young kids (Desoxyn). Ketalar (Ketamine ), PCP (Sernylan) are both similar and both available in Rx form to name a few familiar street drugs that have "Medical" use. Aspirin kills over... Asked by Jerilyn Chamblee 1 year ago.

I have seen all the commercials about the harms of Methamphetamine use but also know that it is a prescription for young kids (Desoxyn). Ketalar (Ketamine ), PCP (Sernylan) are both similar and both available in Rx form to name a few familiar street drugs that have "Medical" use. Aspirin kills over 500 people a year. I was personally admitted for combining Rx meds ( Oxycodone and Xanax) at the prescribed level. Only if there was a drug that calmed both pain and anxiety that was safe. Deaths attributed to Marijuana? 0. Answered by Tina Mcgivney 1 year ago.

A common mis-perception is that it is illegal because people smoke it. I've come to believe that it's all about the industrial uses. Hemp was the top crop worldwide before it was made illegal. It was made illegal at the same time that many synthetic fibers and chemicals were being invented and marketed. This was also right around the time that a hemp paper was developed that could run in printing presses. (previously although hemp paper has a long history, it wouldn't run reliably in the new presses). Fake news, scientific studies, and advertising/education; demonized hemp and convinced the public that people, (especially black people) would run riot in the streets and rape women (especially white women) ; if hemp was available. The "crusade" and the eventual prohibition put synthetic rope and fiber producers, and the logging/paper industry at a great advantage and effectively ended any further use or research into hemp. Even though industrial hemp is effectively not smoke-able, it was included in this prohibition and classed as a drug. That would be just like outlawing chopsticks because bigger pieces of wood could be used as a weapon. Although during the world war, it was briefly legal and farmers were encouraged to grow hemp for fiber and rope. It was back to illegal drug status immediately after. Ever scientific study, social study, psychological study and legal study has recommended it be declassified and decriminalized. Politicians routinely re-write and reverse their own studies' conclusions to support keeping it illegal. There is no study that links usage to anything more than temporary laziness, slight hunger, and some short term loss of memory. As in " what were we just talking about?, Oh yea, let's get some donuts.". No other crime has so little justification to remain on the books. No other current product is kept illegal under these circumstances. You could find literally hundreds of household products that could give you a more severe intoxication effect and are more harmful to you and the environment, that are perfectly legal and sold to anyone at your local store. There are hundreds of plants living near your home or readily available that can be used as intoxicants. And yet,,,, hemp rope is illegal and classified as a drug. Doesn't that sound like fraud to you? Answered by Thalia Eye 1 year ago.

I'm sure there has been a death related to Marijuana, just as they do in Car accidents with alcohol, Im sure someones been killed in a wreck stoned. Needless to say, Marijuana does seem to be the less lethal of all the evils the pharmaceutical companies keep pumping out. With all the medications on T.V. and their 200 side effects list (including heart attack or death) lmao. I believe the U.S. banned Marijuana because they weren't making the profit from it, not because it's as dangerous as the FDA or Government makes it out to be. Look at all of the other drugs, Opiates, Benzos, Alcohol, Hallucinogens, they can kill strictly from overdose, unlike Marijuana, they can kill with liver toxcitiy, Marijuana cant. Yes , Marijuana releases carcinogens when it is burned, Carcinogens can lead to cancer. But, Marjiuana have never been linked to a case of cancer solely by itself. It's not legal because people are making money, and a living off of it, and if someone is profiting, and the U.S. doesn't see any of that money, they get angry and do what ever they can to stop it from happening . Like wasting billions on this anti-drug war BS. U.S. just wants to spread terror into people to get their control and money. Answered by Boyce Onstad 1 year ago.

It's all about the money.I am a cancer survivor and found the only thing that really helped me thru chemo was marijuana.Never been any cases of lung cancer attributed to pot,I now prefer to cook with it in medicinal/maintenance doses. Answered by Clarita Sommers 1 year ago.

It's illegal because it can cause lung cancer, mental health problems and other problems and HAS cause deaths but often makes the user unambitious and cause a lack of empathy. Answered by Loree Lorente 1 year ago.

Marijuana was criminalized due to racism. Harry Anslinger wrote "it made darkies feel as good as whites". Answered by Lanita Bauknecht 1 year ago.

There are no medical reasons, other than it is smoking. No amount of smoking is good for you, but there is still no reason it is illegal. Answered by Jesusa Wagaman 1 year ago.


Why is heroin illegal and other opiates, even stronger ones, legal?
heroin is illegal. but many other opiates, even stronger ones such as hydromorphone, are legal and prescribed every day. how is there any logic behind this at all? Asked by Lakia Reinhart 1 year ago.

Heroin metablizes a a faster rate than morphine leading to a greater addiction rate as it delivers a faster more intense high. Some medications (hydrocodone) is absorbed as Hydromorphone so it would be hard to criminalize something that found in that many places. GHB (Date rape drug) is illegal but there are completely legal cleaning agents that are absorbed as GHB, making the GHB precursor perfectly legal and sold by your local chemical company. PCP (Sernylan), Ketamine (Ketalar) , Meth (Desoxyn) to name a few are legal drugs (for kids) that are illegal when in the hands of someone that is using them to get "High" on. Marijuana is the safest drug on the planet and it is illegal. Narcotic in a medical sense refers to ONLY Opiates. To answer your question simply the ones who make the law have no clue about medicine or the real world for that matter. Legal does NOT mean safe. Answered by Manual Bernardo 1 year ago.

Hydromorphone isn't stronger than heroin and it also isn't commonly prescribed, I've never heard of anyone being prescribed it. Things like vicodin and percocet are generally prescribed for pain. Oxycontin will probably be pulled off of the market soon since it has such high rates for abuse. But even so, at least with oxycontin it's an easy to monitor amount if people are using it to get high, where as with heroin you don't really know exactly what you're getting and what you're consuming and therefore it's easier to overdose. I agree though, it is a problem. People usually think that since a drug is "legal" that it's safer to take and then kids get addicted to oxycontin and then move up to smoking heroin and then run out of money for that and start shooting it because it's cheaper. Opiate addictions are out of control right now and it's a sad thing that so many people are in over their heads and ruining their lives. Answered by Kasie Bachicha 1 year ago.

Rachel, the only reason OxyContin is regulated is because it is legal. If it is pulled off the market, we'll have adulterated oxycodone on the black market just like adulterated heroin. Likewise, if heroin were legal, its purity too can be regulated. So street purity is a drug law issue, not a property inherent to these drugs. As for why heroin is illegal, you have to look to look into the history of the drug. Back in the early 1900s when no one knew about the dangers of opiate addiction and people took heroin for common colds, the only opiates that were available were codeine (weak), and morphine and heroin (highly addictive). So drug laws were formulated against heroin, and not against oxycodone which didn't even exist. This helped shape the social attitude towards heroin, whereas legal opiates like oxycodone, which is just as euphoric and addictive, do not carry the stigma that heroin does. Politicians aren't biochemists. Answered by Tish Westberg 1 year ago.

Is Heroin Legal Or Illegal Answered by Lyndsay Sweem 1 year ago.

Heroin was actually criminalized because back in the late 1800s and early 1900s people used it as a cough suppressant. Many people were becoming addicted and died from it, so they criminalized it. Other opiates like oxycontin and hydromorphone are much safer and i guess healthier for you than black tar herion. These drugs are more addictive because they are synthetic. Answered by Gregorio Wolanski 1 year ago.

Because Heroin is extremely addictive. Whereas hydromorphine ect is not so addictive Answered by Morton Cerone 1 year ago.


What are the effects of sedatives?
include examples Asked by Eugene Chicalace 1 year ago.

A sedative is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement. At higher doses it may result in slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. Doses of sedatives such as benzodiazepines when used as a hypnotic to induce sleep tend to be higher than those used to relieve anxiety, since low doses suffice to provide calming sedative effects. Sedatives can be abused to produce an overly-calming effect (alcohol being the classic and most common sedating drug). At high doses or when they are abused, many of these drugs can cause unconsciousness and even death. There is some overlap between the terms "sedative" and hypnotic. The term "sedative-hypnotic" has been used to describe these joint effects, or the medications causing these joint effects. MeSH (i.e., Medical Subject Headings) classifies these agents in a single category, under CNS depressants. However, advances in pharmacology have permitted more specific targeting of receptors, and greater selectivity of agents, which necessitates greater precision when describing these agents and their effects: (1) Anxiolytic refers specifically to the effect upon anxiety. (However, some benzodiazipines are sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics.) (2) Tranquilizer can refer to anxiolytics or antipsychotics. (3) Soporific and sleeping pill are near-synonyms for hypnotics. Types of sedatives: (1) Barbiturates: Amobarbital (Amytal), pentobarbital (Nembutal), secobarbital (Seconal), Phenobarbitol (Luminal). (2) Benzodiazepines ("minor tranquilizers"): Clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), estazolam (Prosom), flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), lorazepam (Ativan), midazolam (Versed), nitrazepam (Mogadon), oxazepam (Serax), triazolam (Halcion), temazepam (Restoril, Normison, Planum, Tenox, and Temaze), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), alprazolam (Xanax). (3) Herbal sedatives: ashwagandha, catnip, kava (Piper methysticum), mandrake, cannabis, valerian. (4) Solvent sedatives: chloral hydrate (Noctec), diethyl ether (Ether), ethyl alcohol (alcoholic beverage), methyl trichloride (Chloroform). (5) Nonbenzodiazepine sedatives: eszopiclone (Lunesta), zaleplon (Sonata), zolpidem (Ambien), zopiclone (Imovane, Zimovane). (6) Uncategorized Sedatives: carisoprodol (Soma), clomethiazole (clomethiazole), gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Thalidomide, ethchlorvynol (Placidyl), glutethimide (Doriden), ketamine (Ketalar, Ketaset), methaqualone (Sopor, Quaalude), methyprylon (Noludar), ramelteon (Rozerem). Answered by Shad Ewert 1 year ago.

What Are Sedatives Answered by Taisha Puga 1 year ago.


Is ketamine (ketalar) an appropriate anesthetic for a pt with uncontrolled hypertension? why or why not?
Asked by Soledad Heryford 1 year ago.

LOL yarbigy! You can't make blanket statements about what drug is or is not appropriate unless you know a lot more about a specific patient and specific case. In general, we might avoid ketamine in the face of uncontrolled hypertension, because ketamine will raise blood pressure. However, in a pre-eclamptic patient with an abruption needing an emergent C-section, I might use it, as propofol or pentothal might drop the blood pressure in this volume contracted patient to unacceptably low levels. It completely depends on the situation. The dose of ketamine is also important. Small doses, like 10-20 mg, used as an adjuvant for analgesia are probably not going to have much influence on the blood pressure. We don't use ketamine as a sole anesthetic. We use it as part of a balanced technique, along with a handful of other drugs. Answered by Orlando Curry 1 year ago.

I found this quote off of a website that may help you: 'Cardiovascular Blood pressure and pulse rate are frequently elevated following administration of ketamine alone.' It looks like that it would not be appropriate for a hypertensive patient when given alone, but it could be given in conjunction with other drugs to counteract the effect. But still, I wouldn't use it on someone who's circulatory system was compromised. But like almost all other drugs, the polar opposite effect can be seen (Hypotension). Hope this helps. PS - Vets use it as a cat sedative all the time... I sure wouldn't want to be sedated with anything used to knock out cats!! Answered by Lacresha Searby 1 year ago.

no, because it can raise blood pressure, or yes, if you administer it with hypotensive agents. for the person saying its used on cats, wouldnt want ect. I also know vets use desflurane, isoflurane, nitrous oxide, pentobarbital, thiopental fentanyl and hydromorphone as part of their anestesia regiment, I guess the medical profession better never use any of the standard/common anestesias or painkillers on you, huh? *facepalm* pagolin, yes I know it requires to asses the patient and situation on hand/in person to really know the exact answer, but I was giving a very general answer that hypertension must be considered when using ketamine as an anestesia agent. Also, we use it as a primary, and sole anestesia agent, as we cant, in the field, use anything that depresses breathing too much, as we lack ventilation except manually with a bag. Answered by Loretta Cirri 1 year ago.

The effect of ketamine on the respiratory and circulatory systems is different from that of other anesthetics. When used at anesthetic doses, it will usually stimulate rather than depress the circulatory system. So should not use it in this patient. Answered by Evette Stoff 1 year ago.


How safe is ketamine?
im doing a drug S A and i don't know hos safe ketamine it please help :) thank you. Asked by Cameron Bulson 1 year ago.

You are playing with fire. Ketamine is a drug used in human and veterinary medicine. Its hydrochloride salt is sold as Ketanest, Ketaset, and Ketalar. Pharmacologically, ketamine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist.[2] At high, fully anesthetic level doses, ketamine has also been found to bind to opioid μ receptors and sigma receptors.[3][4] Like other drugs of this class such as tiletamine and phencyclidine (PCP), it induces a state referred to as "dissociative anesthesia"[5] and is used as a recreational drug. Ketamine has a wide range of effects in humans, including analgesia, anesthesia, hallucinations, elevated blood pressure, and bronchodilation.[6] Ketamine is primarily used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, usually in combination with some sedative drug. Other uses include sedation in intensive care, analgesia (particularly in emergency medicine), and treatment of bronchospasm. It has been shown to be effective in treating depression in patients with bipolar disorder who have not responded to other anti-depressants.[7] It is also a popular anesthetic in veterinary medicine. Ketamine is a chiral compound. Most pharmaceutical preparations of ketamine are racemic; however, some brands reportedly have (mostly undocumented) differences in enantiomeric proportions. The more active enantiomer, (S)-ketamine, is also available for medical use under the brand name Ketanest S.[8] (R)-ketamine, (S)-ketamine & racemic (R,S)-ketamine all have qualitatively separate distinct effect profiles, although S has the most active potency. Ketamine is a core medicine in the World Health Organization's "Essential Drugs List", which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic health care system.[9] Answered by Wade Diggins 1 year ago.


Ketamine???
what are the negative effects of ketamine on the nervous system? i cant seem to find it on the internet...just the medical effects...help me?? Asked by Cherise Freyman 1 year ago.

we dont use ketamine much anylonger. you should never play with it or take it on your own. Ketamine is a drug for use in human and veterinary medicine developed by Parke-Davis (today a part of Pfizer) in 1962. Its hydrochloride salt is sold as Ketanest, Ketaset, and Ketalar. Pharmacologically, ketamine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist,[1] and at high, fully anesthetic level doses, ketamine has also been found to bind to opioid μ receptors and sigma receptors[2]. Like other drugs of this class such as tiletamine and phencyclidine (PCP), it induces a state referred to as "dissociative anesthesia"[3] and is used as a recreational drug. Ketamine has a wide range of effects in humans, including analgesia, anesthesia, hallucinations, elevated blood pressure, and bronchodilation.[citation needed] It is primarily used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, usually in combination with some sedative drug. Other uses include sedation in intensive care, analgesia (particularly in emergency medicine), and treatment of bronchospasm. It is also a popular anesthetic in veterinary medicine. Ketamine is a chiral compound. Most pharmaceutical preparations of ketamine are racemic; however, some brands reportedly have (mostly undocumented) differences in enantiomeric proportions. The more active enantiomer, S-ketamine, is also available for medical use under the brand name Ketanest S.[4] Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Medical use 2.1 Experimental antidepressant use 2.2 Treatment of addiction 2.3 Treatment of reflex sympathetic dystrophy 2.4 Pharmacological model of schizophrenia 3 Neuropharmacology 4 Recreational use 4.1 Illicit sale 4.2 Methods of use 4.3 Psychological effects 5 Long-term side effects 6 References 7 See also 8 External links [edit] History Ketamine was developed by Dr. Calvin Stevens of Wayne State University. It was then developed by Parke-Davis in 1962 as part of an effort to find a safer anaesthetic alternative to Phencyclidine (PCP), which was more likely to cause hallucinations, neurotoxicity and seizures. The drug was first given to American soldiers during the Vietnam War. It is still widely used in humans. There may be some evidence that ketamine has the potential to cause emergence phenomena because of the drug's possible psychotomimetic effects.[citation needed] It is also used widely in veterinary medicine, or as a battlefield anaesthetic in developing nations.[5] Ketamine's side effects eventually made it a popular psychedelic in 1965. The drug was used in psychiatric and other academic research through the 1970s, culminating in 1978 with the publishing of John Lilly's The Scientist and Marcia Moore and Howard Alltounian's Journeys into the Bright World, which documented the unusual phenomenology of ketamine intoxication.[6] The incidence of recreational ketamine use increased through the end of the century, especially in the context of raves and other parties. The increase in illicit use prompted ketamine's placement in Schedule III of the United States Controlled Substance Act in August 1999.[7] In the United Kingdom, it became outlawed and labeled a Class C drug on January 1, 2006.[8] In Canada ketamine is classified as a Schedule I narcotic.[9] In Hong Kong, as of year 2000, ketamine is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance. It can only be used legally by health professionals, for university research purposes, or with a physician's prescription.[10] [edit] Medical use 10 ml bottles of ketamineContraindications: Alcohol Other sedatives Stimulants Side effects: Severe: Impairs all senses, especially: Sight Balance Sense of time Cardiovascular: Partial depressant Gastrointestinal: Nausea Musculoskeletal: Relaxant Neurological: Analgesia Respiratory: Partial depressant/stimulant In medical settings, ketamine is usually injected intravenously or intramuscularly,[11] but it is also effective when insufflated, smoked, or taken orally.[12] Since it suppresses breathing much less than most other available anaesthetics,[13] ketamine is still used in human medicine as an anesthetic, however, due to the severe hallucinations caused by ketamine, there are better anesthetics for victims with unknown medical history (e.g., from traffic accidents). Ketamine can be used in podiatry and other minor surgery, and occasionally for the treatment of migraine. There is ongoing research in France, the Netherlands, Russia, and the U.S. into the drug's usefulness in pain therapy, depression suppression, and for the treatment of alcoholism[14] and heroin addiction.[15] In veterinary anesthesia, ketamine is often used for its anaesthetic and analgesic effects on cats, dogs, rabbits, rats, and other small animals. Veterinarians often use ketamine with sedative drugs to produce balanced anaesthesia and analgesia, and as a constant rate infusion to help prevent pain wind-up. Ketamine is used to manage pain among large animals, though it has less effect on bovines. It is the primary intravenous anaesthetic agent used in equine surgery, often in conjunction with detomidine and thiopental, or sometimes Glyceryl guaiacolate. Ketamine may be used in small doses (0.1–0.5 mg/kg/h) as a local anesthetic, particularly for the treatment of pain associated with movement and neuropathic pain.[16] It has the added benefit of counter-acting spinal sensitization or wind-up phenomena experienced with chronic pain. At these doses, the psychotropic side effects are less apparent and well managed with benzodiazepines.[17] Ketamine is a co-analgesic, and so is most effective when used alongside a low-dose opioid; while it does have analgesic effects by itself, the higher doses required can cause disorienting side effects.[17] The combination of ketamine with an opioid is, however, particularly useful for pain caused by cancer.[18] The effect of ketamine on the respiratory and circulatory systems is different from that of other anaesthetics. When used at anaesthetic doses, it will usually stimulate rather than depress the circulatory system.[19] It is sometimes possible to perform ketamine anaesthesia without protective measures to the airways. Ketamine is also a potent analgesic and can be used in sub-anaesthetic doses to relieve acute pain; however, its psychotropic properties must be taken into account. Patients have reported vivid hallucinations, "going into other worlds" or "seeing God" while anesthetized, and these unwanted psychological side-effects have reduced the use of ketamine in human medicine. They can, however, usually be avoided by concomitant application of a sedative such as a benzodiazepine.[17] Low-dose ketamine is recognized for its potential effectiveness in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), according to a retrospective review published in the October 2004 issue of Pain Medicine.[20] Although low-dose ketamine therapy is established as a generally safe procedure, reported side effects in some patients have included hallucinations, dizziness, lightheadedness and nausea. Therefore nurses administering ketamine to patients with CRPS should only do so in a setting where a trained physician is available if needed to assess potential adverse effects on patients.[21] [edit] Experimental antidepressant use 100g of KetamineWhen treating patients suffering from complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) with a low-dose (subanesthetic) ketamine infusion, it was observed that some patients made a significant recovery from associated depression. This recovery was not formally documented, as the primary concern was the treatment of the patient's pain. It was not possible to quantify to what degree depression recovery was secondary to the patient's recovery from CRPS. Based on this result, it was thought that a low-dose (subanesthetic) infusion of ketamine was worth a trial in patients who were suffering from treatment-resistant depression without other physical or psychiatric illness. Correll, et al gave ketamine intravenously to patients commencing at 15–20 mg/h (0.1–0.2 mg/kg/h) and the dose increased until a maximum tolerated dose was achieved. This dose was assumed to be a therapeutic dose and was maintained for 5 days. Patients were able to eat, drink, watch television, or read. They could feel inebriated and/or unsteady when walking. If hallucinations occurred, the dose was to be reduced. The patients' normal medications were continued as it was feared that stopping them might result in severe depressive episodes. Before and following each treatment with ketamine, at patient clinic visits, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) were obtained. Two of the patients were described with impressive improvement in depression being maintained for 12 months in patient A and recurrence at 2.5 months and 9 months in patient B.[22] The National Institute of Health News reports that a study of 18 patients has found that ketamine significantly improved treatment-resistant major depression within hours of injection.[23] The improvement lasted up to one week after the single dose.[24] The patients in the study were previously treatment resistant, having tried an average of six other treatments that failed. NIMH director Dr. Thomas Insel said in the paper: "To my knowledge, this is the first report of any medication or other treatment that results in such a pronounced, rapid, prolonged response with a single dose. These were very treatment-resistant patients." The researchers apparently attribute the effect to ketamine being an NMDA receptor antagonist.[25] Those findings of Zarate et al corroborate earlier findings by Berman et al.[26] However Zarate et al do raise some concerns Answered by Deana Israelsen 1 year ago.

BE CAREFUL. While low doses of Ketamine can increase heart-rate, at higher doses it depresses consciousness and breathing and is extremely dangerous to combine with downers like alcohol, Valium or GHB. Frequent use can cause disruptions in consciousness and lead to neuroses or other mental disorders. Ketamine can cause a tremendous psychological dependence. The dissociation from one's consciousness experienced with ketamine can be highly seductive to some people, and there are many cases of ketamine addiction. Ketamine is illegal and possession can result in long prison terms. Answered by Juan Redic 1 year ago.

Ketamine has actually been proposed as a therapeutic treatment for depression. It's early so I can't say anything about it. However I don't recommend doing it on your own time. One fun fact is the some studies suggest that diet and exercise are equally as effective as the leading medications. Without going deep into the mire of chemistry, if you eat junk food and stay home, it makes perfect sense to me that your brain would do the things it does in depression. For example, stress chemicals are released to just wake up in the morning. Not to mention if something is stressing you out. These chemicals are meant to make you run from the lion that is trying to eat you or beat the hell out of the guy stealing your baby. In the modern world when we get those chemicals at work or school, then go home and sleep, no wonder we are depressed, overweight and sickly. These chemicals have been shown to cause brain damage when built up too long, as well as opening the bodies defenses to illness and cancer. A process called excitotoxcixty makes schizophrenic people the way they are and causes you to lose brain tissue when you are depressed. Long story short if you are that into spending loads of money on drugs to feel better, why not get some depression medication? Sitting at home isn't going to make it better. Answered by Ricky Erhart 1 year ago.

I used ketamine on mice during experiments...one thing we had to watch for was the mice coming out of their sleep. I think falling into a coma is also a risk for humans. Ketamine is a controlled substance so contact your local fire department if you come across any. Answered by Celina Adens 1 year ago.

This Site Might Help You. RE: ketamine??? what are the negative effects of ketamine on the nervous system? i cant seem to find it on the internet...just the medical effects...help me?? Answered by Josh Lofthus 1 year ago.

Acupuncture, which involves inserting thin needles into various points on your body, may reduce peripheral neuropathy symptoms. Answered by Maximo Bullen 1 year ago.

1-it increases intracranial pressure 2-causes hallucinations and nightmares.sometimes sweet hallucinations happen too so it is called BAD RIDE when you take it for abuse. 3-can drive to suicide if used by mentally ill patients. Answered by Serita Jaso 1 year ago.


My german shepherd is 10 years old. Last December, we noticed that he hasn't poop in 3 days. brought him to?
the vet and did manual evacuation and monthly since then. will he develop tolerance with ketalar? what is the best analgesia or sedation for him? Asked by Leann Hermenau 1 year ago.

Only a qualified vet will be able to answer this.. Ask them.. Answered by Debera Eversole 1 year ago.


How much anesthetic (Ketamine) can be used to knock someone out without harming them?
EDIT: To the gentleman who used and implied cuss word, I was not aware of that. Would you recommend a more realistic option? Asked by Reed Cantley 1 year ago.

Just to correct some of the incorrect information you have gotten, ketamine is a general anaesthetic used in humans under brand name Ketalar. Ketamine also happens to be one of the safest anaesthetics to use without normal monitoring of vital signs or easy access to life support systems (however there are still risks). In fact ketamine tends to be the most commonly used drug in disaster situations when doctors may not have access to full medical facilities due to its safety and due to the fact most other general anaesthetics are much more dangerious to use without proper monitors. Ketamine is also effective when used alone whereas most other drugs must be used in combination (such as propofol with remifentanil). However to avoid side effects ketamine is nearly always given with a benzodiazepine like diazepam. Ketamine is dosed by weight and a single dose does not last for very long. I have provided a link to the official FDA Ketalar prescribing information which lists specific dosing information. Answered by Luvenia Mintz 1 year ago.

How Much Is Ketamine Answered by Rufus Billie 1 year ago.

If it is just on the skin it will not kill them. However I assume you have other plans. But since you said syringe full just find out what the smallest syringe is and use that in the story? Answered by Rosaura Stradley 1 year ago.

Take another tack, serious felony for murder charge. Without constant monitoring, as in anesthesia, any amount could be fatal. Take another story line, this one would be highly criticized by any editor (or teacher). Answered by Arron Alcivar 1 year ago.

WTF is "syringe full" supposed to mean? *&* That's an ANIMAL tranq...NOT a human sedative. Answered by Kris Koop 1 year ago.


What medical reason is Marijuana ( cannabis ) not legal?
I have seen all the commercials about the harms of Methamphetamine use but also know that it is a prescription for young kids (Desoxyn). Ketalar (Ketamine ), PCP (Sernylan) are both similar and both available in Rx form to name a few familiar street drugs that have "Medical" use. Aspirin kills over... Asked by Christal Csuhta 1 year ago.

I have seen all the commercials about the harms of Methamphetamine use but also know that it is a prescription for young kids (Desoxyn). Ketalar (Ketamine ), PCP (Sernylan) are both similar and both available in Rx form to name a few familiar street drugs that have "Medical" use. Aspirin kills over 500 people a year. I was personally admitted for combining Rx meds ( Oxycodone and Xanax) at the prescribed level. Only if there was a drug that calmed both pain and anxiety that was safe. Deaths attributed to Marijuana? 0. Answered by Crystal Willibrand 1 year ago.

A common mis-perception is that it is illegal because people smoke it. I've come to believe that it's all about the industrial uses. Hemp was the top crop worldwide before it was made illegal. It was made illegal at the same time that many synthetic fibers and chemicals were being invented and marketed. This was also right around the time that a hemp paper was developed that could run in printing presses. (previously although hemp paper has a long history, it wouldn't run reliably in the new presses). Fake news, scientific studies, and advertising/education; demonized hemp and convinced the public that people, (especially black people) would run riot in the streets and rape women (especially white women) ; if hemp was available. The "crusade" and the eventual prohibition put synthetic rope and fiber producers, and the logging/paper industry at a great advantage and effectively ended any further use or research into hemp. Even though industrial hemp is effectively not smoke-able, it was included in this prohibition and classed as a drug. That would be just like outlawing chopsticks because bigger pieces of wood could be used as a weapon. Although during the world war, it was briefly legal and farmers were encouraged to grow hemp for fiber and rope. It was back to illegal drug status immediately after. Ever scientific study, social study, psychological study and legal study has recommended it be declassified and decriminalized. Politicians routinely re-write and reverse their own studies' conclusions to support keeping it illegal. There is no study that links usage to anything more than temporary laziness, slight hunger, and some short term loss of memory. As in " what were we just talking about?, Oh yea, let's get some donuts.". No other crime has so little justification to remain on the books. No other current product is kept illegal under these circumstances. You could find literally hundreds of household products that could give you a more severe intoxication effect and are more harmful to you and the environment, that are perfectly legal and sold to anyone at your local store. There are hundreds of plants living near your home or readily available that can be used as intoxicants. And yet,,,, hemp rope is illegal and classified as a drug. Doesn't that sound like fraud to you? Answered by Kala Cabiltes 1 year ago.

I'm sure there has been a death related to Marijuana, just as they do in Car accidents with alcohol, Im sure someones been killed in a wreck stoned. Needless to say, Marijuana does seem to be the less lethal of all the evils the pharmaceutical companies keep pumping out. With all the medications on T.V. and their 200 side effects list (including heart attack or death) lmao. I believe the U.S. banned Marijuana because they weren't making the profit from it, not because it's as dangerous as the FDA or Government makes it out to be. Look at all of the other drugs, Opiates, Benzos, Alcohol, Hallucinogens, they can kill strictly from overdose, unlike Marijuana, they can kill with liver toxcitiy, Marijuana cant. Yes , Marijuana releases carcinogens when it is burned, Carcinogens can lead to cancer. But, Marjiuana have never been linked to a case of cancer solely by itself. It's not legal because people are making money, and a living off of it, and if someone is profiting, and the U.S. doesn't see any of that money, they get angry and do what ever they can to stop it from happening . Like wasting billions on this anti-drug war BS. U.S. just wants to spread terror into people to get their control and money. Answered by Charlie Greg 1 year ago.

It's all about the money.I am a cancer survivor and found the only thing that really helped me thru chemo was marijuana.Never been any cases of lung cancer attributed to pot,I now prefer to cook with it in medicinal/maintenance doses. Answered by Aracely Tootle 1 year ago.

It's illegal because it can cause lung cancer, mental health problems and other problems and HAS cause deaths but often makes the user unambitious and cause a lack of empathy. Answered by Barney Laye 1 year ago.

Marijuana was criminalized due to racism. Harry Anslinger wrote "it made darkies feel as good as whites". Answered by Lady Gendernalik 1 year ago.

There are no medical reasons, other than it is smoking. No amount of smoking is good for you, but there is still no reason it is illegal. Answered by Nelly Buttrick 1 year ago.


Why is heroin illegal and other opiates, even stronger ones, legal?
heroin is illegal. but many other opiates, even stronger ones such as hydromorphone, are legal and prescribed every day. how is there any logic behind this at all? Asked by Nenita Kassa 1 year ago.

Heroin metablizes a a faster rate than morphine leading to a greater addiction rate as it delivers a faster more intense high. Some medications (hydrocodone) is absorbed as Hydromorphone so it would be hard to criminalize something that found in that many places. GHB (Date rape drug) is illegal but there are completely legal cleaning agents that are absorbed as GHB, making the GHB precursor perfectly legal and sold by your local chemical company. PCP (Sernylan), Ketamine (Ketalar) , Meth (Desoxyn) to name a few are legal drugs (for kids) that are illegal when in the hands of someone that is using them to get "High" on. Marijuana is the safest drug on the planet and it is illegal. Narcotic in a medical sense refers to ONLY Opiates. To answer your question simply the ones who make the law have no clue about medicine or the real world for that matter. Legal does NOT mean safe. Answered by Malcom Pownell 1 year ago.

Hydromorphone isn't stronger than heroin and it also isn't commonly prescribed, I've never heard of anyone being prescribed it. Things like vicodin and percocet are generally prescribed for pain. Oxycontin will probably be pulled off of the market soon since it has such high rates for abuse. But even so, at least with oxycontin it's an easy to monitor amount if people are using it to get high, where as with heroin you don't really know exactly what you're getting and what you're consuming and therefore it's easier to overdose. I agree though, it is a problem. People usually think that since a drug is "legal" that it's safer to take and then kids get addicted to oxycontin and then move up to smoking heroin and then run out of money for that and start shooting it because it's cheaper. Opiate addictions are out of control right now and it's a sad thing that so many people are in over their heads and ruining their lives. Answered by Lydia Kuboushek 1 year ago.

Rachel, the only reason OxyContin is regulated is because it is legal. If it is pulled off the market, we'll have adulterated oxycodone on the black market just like adulterated heroin. Likewise, if heroin were legal, its purity too can be regulated. So street purity is a drug law issue, not a property inherent to these drugs. As for why heroin is illegal, you have to look to look into the history of the drug. Back in the early 1900s when no one knew about the dangers of opiate addiction and people took heroin for common colds, the only opiates that were available were codeine (weak), and morphine and heroin (highly addictive). So drug laws were formulated against heroin, and not against oxycodone which didn't even exist. This helped shape the social attitude towards heroin, whereas legal opiates like oxycodone, which is just as euphoric and addictive, do not carry the stigma that heroin does. Politicians aren't biochemists. Answered by Neoma Pedaci 1 year ago.

Is Heroin Legal Or Illegal Answered by Doria Christensen 1 year ago.

Heroin was actually criminalized because back in the late 1800s and early 1900s people used it as a cough suppressant. Many people were becoming addicted and died from it, so they criminalized it. Other opiates like oxycontin and hydromorphone are much safer and i guess healthier for you than black tar herion. These drugs are more addictive because they are synthetic. Answered by Billie Galusha 1 year ago.

Because Heroin is extremely addictive. Whereas hydromorphine ect is not so addictive Answered by Danyell Hampe 1 year ago.


What are the effects of sedatives?
include examples Asked by Audrey Stankey 1 year ago.

A sedative is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement. At higher doses it may result in slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. Doses of sedatives such as benzodiazepines when used as a hypnotic to induce sleep tend to be higher than those used to relieve anxiety, since low doses suffice to provide calming sedative effects. Sedatives can be abused to produce an overly-calming effect (alcohol being the classic and most common sedating drug). At high doses or when they are abused, many of these drugs can cause unconsciousness and even death. There is some overlap between the terms "sedative" and hypnotic. The term "sedative-hypnotic" has been used to describe these joint effects, or the medications causing these joint effects. MeSH (i.e., Medical Subject Headings) classifies these agents in a single category, under CNS depressants. However, advances in pharmacology have permitted more specific targeting of receptors, and greater selectivity of agents, which necessitates greater precision when describing these agents and their effects: (1) Anxiolytic refers specifically to the effect upon anxiety. (However, some benzodiazipines are sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics.) (2) Tranquilizer can refer to anxiolytics or antipsychotics. (3) Soporific and sleeping pill are near-synonyms for hypnotics. Types of sedatives: (1) Barbiturates: Amobarbital (Amytal), pentobarbital (Nembutal), secobarbital (Seconal), Phenobarbitol (Luminal). (2) Benzodiazepines ("minor tranquilizers"): Clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), estazolam (Prosom), flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), lorazepam (Ativan), midazolam (Versed), nitrazepam (Mogadon), oxazepam (Serax), triazolam (Halcion), temazepam (Restoril, Normison, Planum, Tenox, and Temaze), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), alprazolam (Xanax). (3) Herbal sedatives: ashwagandha, catnip, kava (Piper methysticum), mandrake, cannabis, valerian. (4) Solvent sedatives: chloral hydrate (Noctec), diethyl ether (Ether), ethyl alcohol (alcoholic beverage), methyl trichloride (Chloroform). (5) Nonbenzodiazepine sedatives: eszopiclone (Lunesta), zaleplon (Sonata), zolpidem (Ambien), zopiclone (Imovane, Zimovane). (6) Uncategorized Sedatives: carisoprodol (Soma), clomethiazole (clomethiazole), gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Thalidomide, ethchlorvynol (Placidyl), glutethimide (Doriden), ketamine (Ketalar, Ketaset), methaqualone (Sopor, Quaalude), methyprylon (Noludar), ramelteon (Rozerem). Answered by Santiago Wittich 1 year ago.

What Are Sedatives Answered by Aleen Persia 1 year ago.


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