Application Information

This drug has been submitted to the FDA under the reference 017395/001.

Names and composition

"INTROPIN" is the commercial name of a drug composed of DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE.

Forms

ApplId/ProductId Drug name Active ingredient Form Strenght
017395/001 INTROPIN DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per ML
017395/002 INTROPIN DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 80MG per ML
017395/003 INTROPIN DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 160MG per ML

Similar Active Ingredient

ApplId/ProductId Drug name Active ingredient Form Strenght
017395/001 INTROPIN DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per ML
017395/002 INTROPIN DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 80MG per ML
017395/003 INTROPIN DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 160MG per ML
018014/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per ML
018132/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per ML
018132/002 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 80MG per 100ML
018132/003 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 160MG per 100ML
018132/004 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 80MG per ML
018138/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per ML
018398/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per ML
018398/002 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 80MG per ML
018549/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per ML
018656/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per ML
018826/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN DEXTROSE 5% IN PLASTIC CONTAINER DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 80MG per 100ML
018826/002 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN DEXTROSE 5% IN PLASTIC CONTAINER DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 160MG per 100ML
018826/003 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN DEXTROSE 5% IN PLASTIC CONTAINER DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 320MG per 100ML
019099/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND DEXTROSE 5% IN PLASTIC CONTAINER DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per 100ML
019099/002 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND DEXTROSE 5% DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 80MG per 100ML
019099/003 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND DEXTROSE 5% IN PLASTIC CONTAINER DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 160MG per 100ML
019099/004 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND DEXTROSE 5% DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 320MG per 100ML
019615/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN DEXTROSE 5% IN PLASTIC CONTAINER DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 80MG per 100ML
019615/002 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN DEXTROSE 5% IN PLASTIC CONTAINER DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 160MG per 100ML
019615/003 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN DEXTROSE 5% IN PLASTIC CONTAINER DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 320MG per 100ML
019615/004 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN DEXTROSE 5% IN PLASTIC CONTAINER DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 640MG per 100ML
020542/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN DEXTROSE 5% DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 1.6MG per ML
070011/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per ML
070012/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per ML
070013/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 80MG per ML
070046/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per ML
070047/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 80MG per ML
070058/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per ML
070059/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 80MG per ML
070087/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per ML
070089/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 80MG per ML
070090/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 80MG per ML
070091/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 80MG per ML
070092/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 160MG per ML
070093/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 160MG per ML
070094/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 160MG per ML
070364/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 160MG per ML
070558/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per ML
070559/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 80MG per ML
070656/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per ML
070657/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 80MG per ML
070799/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per ML
070820/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 80MG per ML
070826/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 160MG per ML
072999/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per ML
073000/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 80MG per ML
074403/001 DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTABLE/INJECTION 40MG per ML

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Answered questions

Order is Intropin 400mcg/min IV;Supply is infusion pump, standard solution 400mg in 250mLD5W.WHat is rate?
Asked by Enedina Allgire 1 year ago.

250 mL/400 mg * 0.4 mg/min = 0.25 mL/min Answered by Klara Bockenkamp 1 year ago.


To restore BP in hypotensive crisis......Prostigmin (Neostigmine)?
2 Intropin 3 Bonamine 4 Procainamide HCL (Pronestyl) Asked by Nada Hannen 1 year ago.

I wish I knew! Answered by Sabina Posa 1 year ago.

Hypotensive Crisis Answered by Victorina Poffenberger 1 year ago.


What are other names for dopamine?
like serotonin is 5-hydroxytriptamine Asked by Larue Zumstein 1 year ago.

2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethylamine 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine 3-hydroxytyramine Intropin Revivan Oxytyramine Answered by Earlie Urness 1 year ago.

that's unclear there are actually multiple answers to this question.. Answered by Christel Ellcessor 1 year ago.


Dophamine?
can you explain more about that? Asked by Carroll Forshee 1 year ago.

Dopamine From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. Please help recruit one, or improve this page yourself if you can. See discussion page for details.This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. Please improve the article, or discuss the issue on the talk page. For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). Dopamine General Systematic name 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol Other names 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine; 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine; 3-hydroxytyramine; DA; Intropin Revivan; Oxytyramine Molecular formula C8H11NO2 SMILES C1=CC(=C(C=C1CCN)O)O Molar mass 153.178 g/mol Appearance white powder with distinctive smell CAS number [51-61-6] Properties Density and phase ? g/cm3, ? Solubility in water 60.0 g/100 ml (? °C), solid Melting point 128 °C (401 K) Boiling point ? °C (? K) Acidity (pKa) ? Basicity (pKb) ? Chiral rotation [α]D ?° Viscosity ? cP at ? °C Structure Molecular shape ? Coordination geometry ? Crystal structure ? Dipole moment ? D Hazards MSDS External MSDS Main hazards ? NFPA 704 ? Flash point ? °C R/S statement R: 36/37/38 S: 26-36 RTECS number UX1088000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. Thermodynamic data Phase behaviour Solid, liquid, gas Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS Related compounds Other anions ? Other cations ? Related ? ? Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Dopamine is a chemical naturally produced in the body. In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter, activating dopamine receptors. Dopamine is also a neurohormone released by the hypothalamus. Its main function as a hormone is to inhibit the release of prolactin from the anterior lobe of the pituitary. Dopamine can be supplied as a medication that acts on the sympathetic nervous system, producing effects such as increased heart rate and blood pressure. However, since dopamine cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, dopamine given as a drug does not directly affect the central nervous system. To increase the amount of dopamine in the brains of patients with diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Dopa-Responsive Dystonia, a synthetic precursor to dopamine such as L-DOPA can be given, since this will cross the blood-brain barrier. Contents [hide] 1 Biochemistry 2 Functions in the brain 2.1 Movement 2.2 Cognition and frontal cortex 2.3 Regulating prolactin secretion 2.4 Motivation and pleasure 3 Links to psychosis 4 Depression 5 Therapeutic use 6 Major pathways 7 See also 8 External links 9 Footnotes [edit] Biochemistry Dopamine has the chemical formula (C6H3(OH)2-CH2-CH2-NH2). Its chemical name is 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol and it is abbreviated "DA." As a member of the catecholamine family, dopamine is a precursor to epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) in the biosynthetic pathways for these neurotransmitters. Arvid Carlsson won a share of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for showing that dopamine is not just a precursor to these, but a neurotransmitter as well. Dopamine is synthesized in the body (mainly by nervous tissue and adrenal glands) first by the hydration of the amino acid tyrosine to DOPA by tyrosine hydroxylase and then by the decarboxylation of DOPA by aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase. In neurons, dopamine is packaged after synthesis into vesicles, which are then released in response to the presynaptic action potential. The inactivation mechanism of neurotransmission are 1) uptake via a specific transporter; 2) enzymatic breakdown; and 3) diffusion. Uptake back to the presynaptic neuron via the dopamine transporter is the major role in the inactivation of dopamine neurotransmission. The recycled dopamine will face either breakdown by an enzyme or be re-packaged into vesicles and reused. [edit] Functions in the brain Dopamine has many functions in the brain. Most importantly, dopamine is central to the reward system[1]. Dopamine neurons may have the role to emit a teaching signal for prioritizing and learning of reward-directed behaviour and to code reward information relative to established predictions. [edit] Movement Dopamine affects the basal ganglia motor loop which in turn affects the way the brain controls our movements. Shortage of dopamine, particularly the death of dopamine neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway, causes Parkinson's disease, in which a person loses the ability to execute smooth, controlled movements. [edit] Cognition and frontal cortex In the frontal lobes, dopamine controls the flow of information from other areas of the brain. Dopamine disorders in this region of the brain can cause a decline in neurocognitive functions, especially memory, attention and problem-solving. Reduced dopamine concentrations in the prefrontal cortex are thought to contribute to attention deficit disorder and negative schizophrenia. [edit] Regulating prolactin secretion Dopamine is the primary neuroendocrine regulator of the secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland. Dopamine produced by neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is secreted into the hypothalamo-hypophysial blood vessels of the median eminence, which supply the pituitary gland. The lactotrope cells that produce prolactin, in the absence of dopamine, secrete prolactin continuously; dopamine inhibits this secretion. [edit] Motivation and pleasure Dopamine is commonly associated with the pleasure system of the brain, providing feelings of enjoyment and reinforcement to motivate proactively perform certain activities. Dopamine is released (particularly in areas such as the nucleus accumbens and striatum) by naturally rewarding experiences such as food, sex, use of certain drugs and neutral stimuli that become associated with them. This theory is often discussed in terms of drugs (such as cocaine and amphetamines), which seem to be directly or indirectly related to the increase of dopamine in these areas, and in relation to neurobiological theories of chemical addiction, arguing that these dopamine pathways are pathologically altered in addicted persons. However, cocaine and amphetamine influence separate mechanisms of action. Cocaine is a dopamine transporter blocker that competitively inhibits dopamine uptake to increase the lifetime of dopamine and augments an overabundance of dopamine (an increase of up to 150%) within the parameters of the dopamine neurotransmitters. Like cocaine, amphetamines increase the concentration of dopamine in the synaptic gap, but by a different mechanism. Amphetamines are similar in structure to dopamine, and so can enter the terminal button of the presynaptic neuron via its dopamine transporters as well as by diffusing through the neural membrane directly. When entering inside the presynaptic neuron, amphetamines force the dopamine molecules out of their storage vesicles and expel them into the synaptic gap by making the dopamine transporters work in reverse. Dopamine's role in experiencing pleasure has been questioned by several researchers. It has been argued that dopamine is more associated with anticipatory desire and motivation (commonly referred to as "wanting") as opposed to actual consummatory pleasure (commonly referred to as "liking"). Dopamine is released when unpleasant or aversive stimuli are encountered, and so motivates towards the pleasure of avoiding or removing the unpleasant stimuli. Recent research suggests that the firing of dopamine neurons is a motivational chemical as a result of reward-anticipation. This is based on evidence[citation needed] that, when a reward is perceived to be greater than expected, the firing of certain dopamine neurons increases, which correspondingly increases desire or motivation toward the reward. Clues to dopamine's role in motivation, desire and pleasure have come from studies performed on animals. In one such study rats were depleted of dopamine by up to 99% in the nucleus accumbens and neostriatum using 6-hydroxydopamine.[1] With this large reduction in dopamine, the rats would no longer eat by their own volition. The researchers then force fed the rats food and noted whether they had the proper facial expressions indicating whether they liked or disliked it. The researchers of this study concluded that the reduction in dopamine did not reduce the rat's consummatory pleasure, only the desire to actually eat. In another study, mutant hyperdopaminergic (increased dopamine) mice show higher "wanting" but not "liking" of sweet rewards.[2] In humans, though, drugs that reduce dopamine activity (e.g., antipsychotics) have been shown to reduce motivation as well as cause anhedonia (the inability to experience pleasure).[3] Conversely the selective D2/D3 agonists pramipexole and ropinirole have anti-anhedonic properties as measured by the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale.[4] (The Snaith-Hamilton-Pleasure-Scale (SHAPS), introduced in English in 1995, assesses self-reported anhedonia in psychiatric patients.) Opioid and cannabinoid transmission instead of dopamine may modulate consummatory pleasure and food palatability(liking).[5] This could explain why animals "liking" of food is independent of brain dopamine concentration. Other consummatory pleasures, however, may be more associated with dopamine. One study found that both anticipatory and consummatory measures of sexual behavior (male rats) were disrupted by DA receptor antagonists.[6] Libido can be increased by drugs that affect dopamine but not by drugs that affect opioid peptides or other neurotransmitters. Sociability is also closely tied to dopamine neurotransmission. Low D2 receptor binding is found in people with social anxiety. Traits common to negative schizophrenia (social withdrawal, apathy, anhedonia) are thought to be related to a hypodopaminergic state in certain areas of the brain. In instances of bipolar, manic subjects can become hypersocial as well as hypersexual. This is also credited to an increase in dopamine, because mania alleviates from dopamine blocking antipsychotics. Other theories reinforce[citation needed] that the crucial role of dopamine may be in desire, or anticipating pleasurable activity. Related theories[citation needed] argue that dopamine function may be involved in the salience ('noticeableness') of perceived objects and events, with potentially important stimuli such as: 1) rewarding things or 2) dangerous or threatening things seeming more noticeable or important. This hypothesis argues that dopamine assists decision-making by influencing the priority, or level of desire, of such stimuli to the person concerned. Pharmacological blockade of brain dopamine receptors increases rather than decreases drug-taking behavior. Since blocking dopamine decreases desire, the increase in drug taking behavior may be seen as not a chemical desire but as a deeply psychological desire to just 'feel something'. Deficits in dopamine levels are implicated as one of several possible causes for Adult attention-deficit disorder (AADD), and some types of medications used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/ADD) will help to stimulate dopaminergic systems, leading to potentially heightened sensation, for those afflicted by it and receiving treatment for it. [edit] Links to psychosis Main article: dopamine hypothesis of psychosis Disruption to the dopamine system has also been strongly linked to psychosis and schizophrenia.[7] Dopamine neurons in the mesolimbic pathway are particularly associated with these conditions. This is partly due to the discovery of a class of drugs called the phenothiazines (which block D2 dopamine receptors) that can reduce psychotic symptoms, and partly due to the finding that drugs such as amphetamine and cocaine (which are known to greatly increase dopamine levels) can cause psychosis. Because of this, most modern antipsychotic medication is designed to block dopamine function to varying degrees. [edit] Depression Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is involved in depression. Amphetamines and dopamine reuptake blockers have potent anti-depressant effects but these drugs quickly lose their benefit after they deplete dopamine levels in the brain.Antidepressants appear to primarily enhance serotonergic neurotransmission during preliminary drug administration but it takes several weeks for the antidepressant effect to be noticed. The late effect of antidepressants is thought to involve the indirect serotonergic modulation of dopaminergic neurotranmission. Blocking the D2 dopamine receptor is known to cause relapse in patients that have achieved remission from depression, and such blocking also counteracts the effectiveness of SSRI medication. [edit] Therapeutic use Main article: L-DOPA Levodopa is a dopamine precursor used to treat Parkinson's disease. It is typically co-administered with an inhibitor of peripheral decarboxylation (DDC, dopa decarboxylase), such as carbidopa or benserazide. Inhibitors of alternative metabolic route for dopamine by catechol-O-methyl transferase are also used. These include entacapone and tolcapone. Dopamine is also used as an inotropic drug in patients with shock to increase cardiac output and blood pressure. [edit] Major pathways Mesocortical pathway Mesolimbic pathway Nigrostriatal pathway Tuberoinfundibular pathway Answered by Cindie Kubis 1 year ago.

Dopamine is a reward chemical for the brain. It produces a euphoric feeling. Answered by Roselee Adachi 1 year ago.


I need help with two medical calculation problem??? can you please help me?
I need help with two medical calculation problem??? can you please help me?Gentamicin 480,000 mcgDose: 4mcg/kg/minPatient weight: 176 poundsFluid volume:175 mlHow many milliliters per hour???How many milligrams per hour.Intropin-- dopamine hydrochloride 800 mgDose: 12 mcg/ kg/ minPatient weight-... Asked by Classie Gallion 1 year ago.

I need help with two medical calculation problem??? can you please help me? Gentamicin 480,000 mcg Dose: 4mcg/kg/min Patient weight: 176 pounds Fluid volume:175 ml How many milliliters per hour??? How many milligrams per hour. Intropin-- dopamine hydrochloride 800 mg Dose: 12 mcg/ kg/ min Patient weight- 198 pounds Fluid volume- 500 ml How many milliliters per hour??? How many milligrams per hour??? Can you please help with these problems???? Answered by Brandon Bruechert 1 year ago.

Much though I would like to help you, I am a little reluctant to do so. The 480 mg dose of gentamicin is a 3-fold overdose for your first patient, and is very likely to put him into renal failure. However, this is how to solve this sort of problem. You first need to convert pounds to kg, so use the conversion 2.2 lb = 1kg, to get the patients' weights in kg. Next, make up the gentamicin solution. 480,000 mcg is going into 175 ml, so you can work out the concentration of the drug from the formula concentration C = drug weight D / volume V That concentration C has units of mcg/ml. Now let us call the first patient's weight in kg W (you have already worked out W). Each minute he is to receive 4 mcg/kg, that is 4 x W mcg. In 1 hour, therefore, he is going to get 4 x W x 60 mcg. There are 1000 mcg in 1 mg, so divide by 1000 to get your final mg/hr. Now you have to work out what volume of fluid is given in 1 hour. You know the concentration C, you know the drug weight in 1 hour (you've just worked it out) and you have the same formula for concentration, weight and volume. Good luck, and suggest to your teacher that it might be better to use real-world numbers. Answered by Cecil Billing 1 year ago.

at the same time as my cat peed on the settee, it changed into because she had a kidney stone and changed into in discomfort going to the lavatory and she or he mandatory a thanks to get our interest. She hasnt done it when you consider that she had an operation to sparkling up her stones. If this is a unexpected behaviour then it really is conceivable a medical condition and also you should e book her in for a examine up. If there is no longer something incorrect such as her, then her vet can advise some ideas to coach her no longer to attempt this. or you are able to attempt basically putting her in her container each 1/2 hour until eventually she receives the message. also, have you ever replaced manufacturers of clutter presently? Or something else interior the relations individuals replaced, alot of visitors over yuletide/new years, or someone interior the relations away? Cats may nicely be really gentle to rigidity in human beings or substitute of their households so she may calm down if it really is the case. Answered by Ted Santamarina 1 year ago.

It's not a three-fold overdose, we commonly use upwards of 7 mg/kg for once-daily dosing........The rest of Peter's response is correct. Answered by Callie Bartnik 1 year ago.


I need help with two medical calculation problem??? can you please help me?
Gentamicin 480,000 mcgDose: 4mcg/kg/minPatient weight: 176 poundsFluid volume:175 mlHow many milliliters per hour???How many milligrams per hour.Intropin-- dopamine hydrochloride 800 mgDose: 12 mcg/ kg/ minPatient weight- 198 poundsFluid volume- 500 mlHow many milliliters per hour???How many... Asked by Arica Cowick 1 year ago.

Gentamicin 480,000 mcg Dose: 4mcg/kg/min Patient weight: 176 pounds Fluid volume:175 ml How many milliliters per hour??? How many milligrams per hour. Intropin-- dopamine hydrochloride 800 mg Dose: 12 mcg/ kg/ min Patient weight- 198 pounds Fluid volume- 500 ml How many milliliters per hour??? How many milligrams per hour??? Can you please help with these problems???? Answered by Wilton Kosanke 1 year ago.

The concentration of the solution is: 480,000 mcg/175ml = 2743 mcg/ml The weight of the patient in kg is: 198 lb * 0.454 kg/lb = 89.9 kg There are 60 minutes in an hour. 4mcg/kg/min * 89.9kg * 60 min/1 hr = 21,576 mcg/hr = 21.57 mg/hr 21,576 mcg * 1 ml/ 2743 mcg = 7.87 ml/hr so 7.87 ml/hr and 21.57 mg/hr. Answered by Noemi Alstad 1 year ago.


Prepare 8ml of a 5mg/ml hydrocortisone solution from a 100mg/ml stock solution.?
Question 1: How many mililiters of hydrocortisone and diluent are needed? Question 2: calcuate the amount of drug in miligrams for the following dispensed containers. Ketoconazole 2%, 7fl oz shampoo. Question 3: interpret the following prescriptions and provide the required rates. Medication... Asked by Karry Dilbert 1 year ago.

Question 1: How many mililiters of hydrocortisone and diluent are needed? Question 2: calcuate the amount of drug in miligrams for the following dispensed containers. Ketoconazole 2%, 7fl oz shampoo. Question 3: interpret the following prescriptions and provide the required rates. Medication intropin 800mg, dose 12mcg/kg/min, patient weight 198lb, fluid volume: 500ml. How many mililiters per hour? How many miligrams per hour? Use the alligation method to answer the following problems. Prepare 400ml of D8W from D20W and sterile water for injection (SWFI). How much of each will be needed? Answered by Catherina Zaczek 1 year ago.

1. 2.2mgs of Hydrocortisone. 6.2mls of solutin 2 . 100mgs of medication dont have time to answer the rest right now Answered by Eusebia Burpo 1 year ago.


Order is Intropin 400mcg/min IV;Supply is infusion pump, standard solution 400mg in 250mLD5W.WHat is rate?
Asked by Tameka Coate 1 year ago.

250 mL/400 mg * 0.4 mg/min = 0.25 mL/min Answered by Jannette Sandman 1 year ago.


To restore BP in hypotensive crisis......Prostigmin (Neostigmine)?
2 Intropin 3 Bonamine 4 Procainamide HCL (Pronestyl) Asked by Evan Acor 1 year ago.

I wish I knew! Answered by Marlen Swehla 1 year ago.

Hypotensive Crisis Answered by Burton Alessandro 1 year ago.


What are other names for dopamine?
like serotonin is 5-hydroxytriptamine Asked by Goldie Ablang 1 year ago.

2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethylamine 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine 3-hydroxytyramine Intropin Revivan Oxytyramine Answered by Charita Schauland 1 year ago.

that's unclear there are actually multiple answers to this question.. Answered by Vincenza Salas 1 year ago.


Dophamine?
can you explain more about that? Asked by Adolfo Swedlund 1 year ago.

Dopamine From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. Please help recruit one, or improve this page yourself if you can. See discussion page for details.This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. Please improve the article, or discuss the issue on the talk page. For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). Dopamine General Systematic name 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol Other names 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine; 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine; 3-hydroxytyramine; DA; Intropin Revivan; Oxytyramine Molecular formula C8H11NO2 SMILES C1=CC(=C(C=C1CCN)O)O Molar mass 153.178 g/mol Appearance white powder with distinctive smell CAS number [51-61-6] Properties Density and phase ? g/cm3, ? Solubility in water 60.0 g/100 ml (? °C), solid Melting point 128 °C (401 K) Boiling point ? °C (? K) Acidity (pKa) ? Basicity (pKb) ? Chiral rotation [α]D ?° Viscosity ? cP at ? °C Structure Molecular shape ? Coordination geometry ? Crystal structure ? Dipole moment ? D Hazards MSDS External MSDS Main hazards ? NFPA 704 ? Flash point ? °C R/S statement R: 36/37/38 S: 26-36 RTECS number UX1088000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. Thermodynamic data Phase behaviour Solid, liquid, gas Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS Related compounds Other anions ? Other cations ? Related ? ? Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Dopamine is a chemical naturally produced in the body. In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter, activating dopamine receptors. Dopamine is also a neurohormone released by the hypothalamus. Its main function as a hormone is to inhibit the release of prolactin from the anterior lobe of the pituitary. Dopamine can be supplied as a medication that acts on the sympathetic nervous system, producing effects such as increased heart rate and blood pressure. However, since dopamine cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, dopamine given as a drug does not directly affect the central nervous system. To increase the amount of dopamine in the brains of patients with diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Dopa-Responsive Dystonia, a synthetic precursor to dopamine such as L-DOPA can be given, since this will cross the blood-brain barrier. Contents [hide] 1 Biochemistry 2 Functions in the brain 2.1 Movement 2.2 Cognition and frontal cortex 2.3 Regulating prolactin secretion 2.4 Motivation and pleasure 3 Links to psychosis 4 Depression 5 Therapeutic use 6 Major pathways 7 See also 8 External links 9 Footnotes [edit] Biochemistry Dopamine has the chemical formula (C6H3(OH)2-CH2-CH2-NH2). Its chemical name is 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol and it is abbreviated "DA." As a member of the catecholamine family, dopamine is a precursor to epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) in the biosynthetic pathways for these neurotransmitters. Arvid Carlsson won a share of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for showing that dopamine is not just a precursor to these, but a neurotransmitter as well. Dopamine is synthesized in the body (mainly by nervous tissue and adrenal glands) first by the hydration of the amino acid tyrosine to DOPA by tyrosine hydroxylase and then by the decarboxylation of DOPA by aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase. In neurons, dopamine is packaged after synthesis into vesicles, which are then released in response to the presynaptic action potential. The inactivation mechanism of neurotransmission are 1) uptake via a specific transporter; 2) enzymatic breakdown; and 3) diffusion. Uptake back to the presynaptic neuron via the dopamine transporter is the major role in the inactivation of dopamine neurotransmission. The recycled dopamine will face either breakdown by an enzyme or be re-packaged into vesicles and reused. [edit] Functions in the brain Dopamine has many functions in the brain. Most importantly, dopamine is central to the reward system[1]. Dopamine neurons may have the role to emit a teaching signal for prioritizing and learning of reward-directed behaviour and to code reward information relative to established predictions. [edit] Movement Dopamine affects the basal ganglia motor loop which in turn affects the way the brain controls our movements. Shortage of dopamine, particularly the death of dopamine neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway, causes Parkinson's disease, in which a person loses the ability to execute smooth, controlled movements. [edit] Cognition and frontal cortex In the frontal lobes, dopamine controls the flow of information from other areas of the brain. Dopamine disorders in this region of the brain can cause a decline in neurocognitive functions, especially memory, attention and problem-solving. Reduced dopamine concentrations in the prefrontal cortex are thought to contribute to attention deficit disorder and negative schizophrenia. [edit] Regulating prolactin secretion Dopamine is the primary neuroendocrine regulator of the secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland. Dopamine produced by neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is secreted into the hypothalamo-hypophysial blood vessels of the median eminence, which supply the pituitary gland. The lactotrope cells that produce prolactin, in the absence of dopamine, secrete prolactin continuously; dopamine inhibits this secretion. [edit] Motivation and pleasure Dopamine is commonly associated with the pleasure system of the brain, providing feelings of enjoyment and reinforcement to motivate proactively perform certain activities. Dopamine is released (particularly in areas such as the nucleus accumbens and striatum) by naturally rewarding experiences such as food, sex, use of certain drugs and neutral stimuli that become associated with them. This theory is often discussed in terms of drugs (such as cocaine and amphetamines), which seem to be directly or indirectly related to the increase of dopamine in these areas, and in relation to neurobiological theories of chemical addiction, arguing that these dopamine pathways are pathologically altered in addicted persons. However, cocaine and amphetamine influence separate mechanisms of action. Cocaine is a dopamine transporter blocker that competitively inhibits dopamine uptake to increase the lifetime of dopamine and augments an overabundance of dopamine (an increase of up to 150%) within the parameters of the dopamine neurotransmitters. Like cocaine, amphetamines increase the concentration of dopamine in the synaptic gap, but by a different mechanism. Amphetamines are similar in structure to dopamine, and so can enter the terminal button of the presynaptic neuron via its dopamine transporters as well as by diffusing through the neural membrane directly. When entering inside the presynaptic neuron, amphetamines force the dopamine molecules out of their storage vesicles and expel them into the synaptic gap by making the dopamine transporters work in reverse. Dopamine's role in experiencing pleasure has been questioned by several researchers. It has been argued that dopamine is more associated with anticipatory desire and motivation (commonly referred to as "wanting") as opposed to actual consummatory pleasure (commonly referred to as "liking"). Dopamine is released when unpleasant or aversive stimuli are encountered, and so motivates towards the pleasure of avoiding or removing the unpleasant stimuli. Recent research suggests that the firing of dopamine neurons is a motivational chemical as a result of reward-anticipation. This is based on evidence[citation needed] that, when a reward is perceived to be greater than expected, the firing of certain dopamine neurons increases, which correspondingly increases desire or motivation toward the reward. Clues to dopamine's role in motivation, desire and pleasure have come from studies performed on animals. In one such study rats were depleted of dopamine by up to 99% in the nucleus accumbens and neostriatum using 6-hydroxydopamine.[1] With this large reduction in dopamine, the rats would no longer eat by their own volition. The researchers then force fed the rats food and noted whether they had the proper facial expressions indicating whether they liked or disliked it. The researchers of this study concluded that the reduction in dopamine did not reduce the rat's consummatory pleasure, only the desire to actually eat. In another study, mutant hyperdopaminergic (increased dopamine) mice show higher "wanting" but not "liking" of sweet rewards.[2] In humans, though, drugs that reduce dopamine activity (e.g., antipsychotics) have been shown to reduce motivation as well as cause anhedonia (the inability to experience pleasure).[3] Conversely the selective D2/D3 agonists pramipexole and ropinirole have anti-anhedonic properties as measured by the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale.[4] (The Snaith-Hamilton-Pleasure-Scale (SHAPS), introduced in English in 1995, assesses self-reported anhedonia in psychiatric patients.) Opioid and cannabinoid transmission instead of dopamine may modulate consummatory pleasure and food palatability(liking).[5] This could explain why animals "liking" of food is independent of brain dopamine concentration. Other consummatory pleasures, however, may be more associated with dopamine. One study found that both anticipatory and consummatory measures of sexual behavior (male rats) were disrupted by DA receptor antagonists.[6] Libido can be increased by drugs that affect dopamine but not by drugs that affect opioid peptides or other neurotransmitters. Sociability is also closely tied to dopamine neurotransmission. Low D2 receptor binding is found in people with social anxiety. Traits common to negative schizophrenia (social withdrawal, apathy, anhedonia) are thought to be related to a hypodopaminergic state in certain areas of the brain. In instances of bipolar, manic subjects can become hypersocial as well as hypersexual. This is also credited to an increase in dopamine, because mania alleviates from dopamine blocking antipsychotics. Other theories reinforce[citation needed] that the crucial role of dopamine may be in desire, or anticipating pleasurable activity. Related theories[citation needed] argue that dopamine function may be involved in the salience ('noticeableness') of perceived objects and events, with potentially important stimuli such as: 1) rewarding things or 2) dangerous or threatening things seeming more noticeable or important. This hypothesis argues that dopamine assists decision-making by influencing the priority, or level of desire, of such stimuli to the person concerned. Pharmacological blockade of brain dopamine receptors increases rather than decreases drug-taking behavior. Since blocking dopamine decreases desire, the increase in drug taking behavior may be seen as not a chemical desire but as a deeply psychological desire to just 'feel something'. Deficits in dopamine levels are implicated as one of several possible causes for Adult attention-deficit disorder (AADD), and some types of medications used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/ADD) will help to stimulate dopaminergic systems, leading to potentially heightened sensation, for those afflicted by it and receiving treatment for it. [edit] Links to psychosis Main article: dopamine hypothesis of psychosis Disruption to the dopamine system has also been strongly linked to psychosis and schizophrenia.[7] Dopamine neurons in the mesolimbic pathway are particularly associated with these conditions. This is partly due to the discovery of a class of drugs called the phenothiazines (which block D2 dopamine receptors) that can reduce psychotic symptoms, and partly due to the finding that drugs such as amphetamine and cocaine (which are known to greatly increase dopamine levels) can cause psychosis. Because of this, most modern antipsychotic medication is designed to block dopamine function to varying degrees. [edit] Depression Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is involved in depression. Amphetamines and dopamine reuptake blockers have potent anti-depressant effects but these drugs quickly lose their benefit after they deplete dopamine levels in the brain.Antidepressants appear to primarily enhance serotonergic neurotransmission during preliminary drug administration but it takes several weeks for the antidepressant effect to be noticed. The late effect of antidepressants is thought to involve the indirect serotonergic modulation of dopaminergic neurotranmission. Blocking the D2 dopamine receptor is known to cause relapse in patients that have achieved remission from depression, and such blocking also counteracts the effectiveness of SSRI medication. [edit] Therapeutic use Main article: L-DOPA Levodopa is a dopamine precursor used to treat Parkinson's disease. It is typically co-administered with an inhibitor of peripheral decarboxylation (DDC, dopa decarboxylase), such as carbidopa or benserazide. Inhibitors of alternative metabolic route for dopamine by catechol-O-methyl transferase are also used. These include entacapone and tolcapone. Dopamine is also used as an inotropic drug in patients with shock to increase cardiac output and blood pressure. [edit] Major pathways Mesocortical pathway Mesolimbic pathway Nigrostriatal pathway Tuberoinfundibular pathway Answered by Xavier Mane 1 year ago.

Dopamine is a reward chemical for the brain. It produces a euphoric feeling. Answered by Gena Worsley 1 year ago.


I need help with two medical calculation problem??? can you please help me?
I need help with two medical calculation problem??? can you please help me?Gentamicin 480,000 mcgDose: 4mcg/kg/minPatient weight: 176 poundsFluid volume:175 mlHow many milliliters per hour???How many milligrams per hour.Intropin-- dopamine hydrochloride 800 mgDose: 12 mcg/ kg/ minPatient weight-... Asked by Micha Boswell 1 year ago.

I need help with two medical calculation problem??? can you please help me? Gentamicin 480,000 mcg Dose: 4mcg/kg/min Patient weight: 176 pounds Fluid volume:175 ml How many milliliters per hour??? How many milligrams per hour. Intropin-- dopamine hydrochloride 800 mg Dose: 12 mcg/ kg/ min Patient weight- 198 pounds Fluid volume- 500 ml How many milliliters per hour??? How many milligrams per hour??? Can you please help with these problems???? Answered by Edwin Liberati 1 year ago.

Much though I would like to help you, I am a little reluctant to do so. The 480 mg dose of gentamicin is a 3-fold overdose for your first patient, and is very likely to put him into renal failure. However, this is how to solve this sort of problem. You first need to convert pounds to kg, so use the conversion 2.2 lb = 1kg, to get the patients' weights in kg. Next, make up the gentamicin solution. 480,000 mcg is going into 175 ml, so you can work out the concentration of the drug from the formula concentration C = drug weight D / volume V That concentration C has units of mcg/ml. Now let us call the first patient's weight in kg W (you have already worked out W). Each minute he is to receive 4 mcg/kg, that is 4 x W mcg. In 1 hour, therefore, he is going to get 4 x W x 60 mcg. There are 1000 mcg in 1 mg, so divide by 1000 to get your final mg/hr. Now you have to work out what volume of fluid is given in 1 hour. You know the concentration C, you know the drug weight in 1 hour (you've just worked it out) and you have the same formula for concentration, weight and volume. Good luck, and suggest to your teacher that it might be better to use real-world numbers. Answered by Deb Nenninger 1 year ago.

at the same time as my cat peed on the settee, it changed into because she had a kidney stone and changed into in discomfort going to the lavatory and she or he mandatory a thanks to get our interest. She hasnt done it when you consider that she had an operation to sparkling up her stones. If this is a unexpected behaviour then it really is conceivable a medical condition and also you should e book her in for a examine up. If there is no longer something incorrect such as her, then her vet can advise some ideas to coach her no longer to attempt this. or you are able to attempt basically putting her in her container each 1/2 hour until eventually she receives the message. also, have you ever replaced manufacturers of clutter presently? Or something else interior the relations individuals replaced, alot of visitors over yuletide/new years, or someone interior the relations away? Cats may nicely be really gentle to rigidity in human beings or substitute of their households so she may calm down if it really is the case. Answered by Darline Vrieze 1 year ago.

It's not a three-fold overdose, we commonly use upwards of 7 mg/kg for once-daily dosing........The rest of Peter's response is correct. Answered by Corazon Vorkink 1 year ago.


I need help with two medical calculation problem??? can you please help me?
Gentamicin 480,000 mcgDose: 4mcg/kg/minPatient weight: 176 poundsFluid volume:175 mlHow many milliliters per hour???How many milligrams per hour.Intropin-- dopamine hydrochloride 800 mgDose: 12 mcg/ kg/ minPatient weight- 198 poundsFluid volume- 500 mlHow many milliliters per hour???How many... Asked by Michell Hogon 1 year ago.

Gentamicin 480,000 mcg Dose: 4mcg/kg/min Patient weight: 176 pounds Fluid volume:175 ml How many milliliters per hour??? How many milligrams per hour. Intropin-- dopamine hydrochloride 800 mg Dose: 12 mcg/ kg/ min Patient weight- 198 pounds Fluid volume- 500 ml How many milliliters per hour??? How many milligrams per hour??? Can you please help with these problems???? Answered by Andy Behanan 1 year ago.

The concentration of the solution is: 480,000 mcg/175ml = 2743 mcg/ml The weight of the patient in kg is: 198 lb * 0.454 kg/lb = 89.9 kg There are 60 minutes in an hour. 4mcg/kg/min * 89.9kg * 60 min/1 hr = 21,576 mcg/hr = 21.57 mg/hr 21,576 mcg * 1 ml/ 2743 mcg = 7.87 ml/hr so 7.87 ml/hr and 21.57 mg/hr. Answered by Lynell Hussaini 1 year ago.


Prepare 8ml of a 5mg/ml hydrocortisone solution from a 100mg/ml stock solution.?
Question 1: How many mililiters of hydrocortisone and diluent are needed? Question 2: calcuate the amount of drug in miligrams for the following dispensed containers. Ketoconazole 2%, 7fl oz shampoo. Question 3: interpret the following prescriptions and provide the required rates. Medication... Asked by Marilu Amoa 1 year ago.

Question 1: How many mililiters of hydrocortisone and diluent are needed? Question 2: calcuate the amount of drug in miligrams for the following dispensed containers. Ketoconazole 2%, 7fl oz shampoo. Question 3: interpret the following prescriptions and provide the required rates. Medication intropin 800mg, dose 12mcg/kg/min, patient weight 198lb, fluid volume: 500ml. How many mililiters per hour? How many miligrams per hour? Use the alligation method to answer the following problems. Prepare 400ml of D8W from D20W and sterile water for injection (SWFI). How much of each will be needed? Answered by Betsy Ribero 1 year ago.

1. 2.2mgs of Hydrocortisone. 6.2mls of solutin 2 . 100mgs of medication dont have time to answer the rest right now Answered by Elliot Riss 1 year ago.


Order is Intropin 400mcg/min IV;Supply is infusion pump, standard solution 400mg in 250mLD5W.WHat is rate?
Asked by Harley Nealy 1 year ago.

250 mL/400 mg * 0.4 mg/min = 0.25 mL/min Answered by Candace Kaut 1 year ago.


To restore BP in hypotensive crisis......Prostigmin (Neostigmine)?
2 Intropin 3 Bonamine 4 Procainamide HCL (Pronestyl) Asked by Tatum Werbelow 1 year ago.

I wish I knew! Answered by Blythe Galloway 1 year ago.

Hypotensive Crisis Answered by Madison Groombridge 1 year ago.


What are other names for dopamine?
like serotonin is 5-hydroxytriptamine Asked by Linwood Ockmond 1 year ago.

2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethylamine 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine 3-hydroxytyramine Intropin Revivan Oxytyramine Answered by Angla Raybon 1 year ago.

that's unclear there are actually multiple answers to this question.. Answered by Song Almeida 1 year ago.


Dophamine?
can you explain more about that? Asked by Kari Anadio 1 year ago.

Dopamine From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. Please help recruit one, or improve this page yourself if you can. See discussion page for details.This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. Please improve the article, or discuss the issue on the talk page. For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). Dopamine General Systematic name 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol Other names 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine; 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine; 3-hydroxytyramine; DA; Intropin Revivan; Oxytyramine Molecular formula C8H11NO2 SMILES C1=CC(=C(C=C1CCN)O)O Molar mass 153.178 g/mol Appearance white powder with distinctive smell CAS number [51-61-6] Properties Density and phase ? g/cm3, ? Solubility in water 60.0 g/100 ml (? °C), solid Melting point 128 °C (401 K) Boiling point ? °C (? K) Acidity (pKa) ? Basicity (pKb) ? Chiral rotation [α]D ?° Viscosity ? cP at ? °C Structure Molecular shape ? Coordination geometry ? Crystal structure ? Dipole moment ? D Hazards MSDS External MSDS Main hazards ? NFPA 704 ? Flash point ? °C R/S statement R: 36/37/38 S: 26-36 RTECS number UX1088000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. Thermodynamic data Phase behaviour Solid, liquid, gas Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS Related compounds Other anions ? Other cations ? Related ? ? Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Dopamine is a chemical naturally produced in the body. In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter, activating dopamine receptors. Dopamine is also a neurohormone released by the hypothalamus. Its main function as a hormone is to inhibit the release of prolactin from the anterior lobe of the pituitary. Dopamine can be supplied as a medication that acts on the sympathetic nervous system, producing effects such as increased heart rate and blood pressure. However, since dopamine cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, dopamine given as a drug does not directly affect the central nervous system. To increase the amount of dopamine in the brains of patients with diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Dopa-Responsive Dystonia, a synthetic precursor to dopamine such as L-DOPA can be given, since this will cross the blood-brain barrier. Contents [hide] 1 Biochemistry 2 Functions in the brain 2.1 Movement 2.2 Cognition and frontal cortex 2.3 Regulating prolactin secretion 2.4 Motivation and pleasure 3 Links to psychosis 4 Depression 5 Therapeutic use 6 Major pathways 7 See also 8 External links 9 Footnotes [edit] Biochemistry Dopamine has the chemical formula (C6H3(OH)2-CH2-CH2-NH2). Its chemical name is 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol and it is abbreviated "DA." As a member of the catecholamine family, dopamine is a precursor to epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) in the biosynthetic pathways for these neurotransmitters. Arvid Carlsson won a share of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for showing that dopamine is not just a precursor to these, but a neurotransmitter as well. Dopamine is synthesized in the body (mainly by nervous tissue and adrenal glands) first by the hydration of the amino acid tyrosine to DOPA by tyrosine hydroxylase and then by the decarboxylation of DOPA by aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase. In neurons, dopamine is packaged after synthesis into vesicles, which are then released in response to the presynaptic action potential. The inactivation mechanism of neurotransmission are 1) uptake via a specific transporter; 2) enzymatic breakdown; and 3) diffusion. Uptake back to the presynaptic neuron via the dopamine transporter is the major role in the inactivation of dopamine neurotransmission. The recycled dopamine will face either breakdown by an enzyme or be re-packaged into vesicles and reused. [edit] Functions in the brain Dopamine has many functions in the brain. Most importantly, dopamine is central to the reward system[1]. Dopamine neurons may have the role to emit a teaching signal for prioritizing and learning of reward-directed behaviour and to code reward information relative to established predictions. [edit] Movement Dopamine affects the basal ganglia motor loop which in turn affects the way the brain controls our movements. Shortage of dopamine, particularly the death of dopamine neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway, causes Parkinson's disease, in which a person loses the ability to execute smooth, controlled movements. [edit] Cognition and frontal cortex In the frontal lobes, dopamine controls the flow of information from other areas of the brain. Dopamine disorders in this region of the brain can cause a decline in neurocognitive functions, especially memory, attention and problem-solving. Reduced dopamine concentrations in the prefrontal cortex are thought to contribute to attention deficit disorder and negative schizophrenia. [edit] Regulating prolactin secretion Dopamine is the primary neuroendocrine regulator of the secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland. Dopamine produced by neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is secreted into the hypothalamo-hypophysial blood vessels of the median eminence, which supply the pituitary gland. The lactotrope cells that produce prolactin, in the absence of dopamine, secrete prolactin continuously; dopamine inhibits this secretion. [edit] Motivation and pleasure Dopamine is commonly associated with the pleasure system of the brain, providing feelings of enjoyment and reinforcement to motivate proactively perform certain activities. Dopamine is released (particularly in areas such as the nucleus accumbens and striatum) by naturally rewarding experiences such as food, sex, use of certain drugs and neutral stimuli that become associated with them. This theory is often discussed in terms of drugs (such as cocaine and amphetamines), which seem to be directly or indirectly related to the increase of dopamine in these areas, and in relation to neurobiological theories of chemical addiction, arguing that these dopamine pathways are pathologically altered in addicted persons. However, cocaine and amphetamine influence separate mechanisms of action. Cocaine is a dopamine transporter blocker that competitively inhibits dopamine uptake to increase the lifetime of dopamine and augments an overabundance of dopamine (an increase of up to 150%) within the parameters of the dopamine neurotransmitters. Like cocaine, amphetamines increase the concentration of dopamine in the synaptic gap, but by a different mechanism. Amphetamines are similar in structure to dopamine, and so can enter the terminal button of the presynaptic neuron via its dopamine transporters as well as by diffusing through the neural membrane directly. When entering inside the presynaptic neuron, amphetamines force the dopamine molecules out of their storage vesicles and expel them into the synaptic gap by making the dopamine transporters work in reverse. Dopamine's role in experiencing pleasure has been questioned by several researchers. It has been argued that dopamine is more associated with anticipatory desire and motivation (commonly referred to as "wanting") as opposed to actual consummatory pleasure (commonly referred to as "liking"). Dopamine is released when unpleasant or aversive stimuli are encountered, and so motivates towards the pleasure of avoiding or removing the unpleasant stimuli. Recent research suggests that the firing of dopamine neurons is a motivational chemical as a result of reward-anticipation. This is based on evidence[citation needed] that, when a reward is perceived to be greater than expected, the firing of certain dopamine neurons increases, which correspondingly increases desire or motivation toward the reward. Clues to dopamine's role in motivation, desire and pleasure have come from studies performed on animals. In one such study rats were depleted of dopamine by up to 99% in the nucleus accumbens and neostriatum using 6-hydroxydopamine.[1] With this large reduction in dopamine, the rats would no longer eat by their own volition. The researchers then force fed the rats food and noted whether they had the proper facial expressions indicating whether they liked or disliked it. The researchers of this study concluded that the reduction in dopamine did not reduce the rat's consummatory pleasure, only the desire to actually eat. In another study, mutant hyperdopaminergic (increased dopamine) mice show higher "wanting" but not "liking" of sweet rewards.[2] In humans, though, drugs that reduce dopamine activity (e.g., antipsychotics) have been shown to reduce motivation as well as cause anhedonia (the inability to experience pleasure).[3] Conversely the selective D2/D3 agonists pramipexole and ropinirole have anti-anhedonic properties as measured by the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale.[4] (The Snaith-Hamilton-Pleasure-Scale (SHAPS), introduced in English in 1995, assesses self-reported anhedonia in psychiatric patients.) Opioid and cannabinoid transmission instead of dopamine may modulate consummatory pleasure and food palatability(liking).[5] This could explain why animals "liking" of food is independent of brain dopamine concentration. Other consummatory pleasures, however, may be more associated with dopamine. One study found that both anticipatory and consummatory measures of sexual behavior (male rats) were disrupted by DA receptor antagonists.[6] Libido can be increased by drugs that affect dopamine but not by drugs that affect opioid peptides or other neurotransmitters. Sociability is also closely tied to dopamine neurotransmission. Low D2 receptor binding is found in people with social anxiety. Traits common to negative schizophrenia (social withdrawal, apathy, anhedonia) are thought to be related to a hypodopaminergic state in certain areas of the brain. In instances of bipolar, manic subjects can become hypersocial as well as hypersexual. This is also credited to an increase in dopamine, because mania alleviates from dopamine blocking antipsychotics. Other theories reinforce[citation needed] that the crucial role of dopamine may be in desire, or anticipating pleasurable activity. Related theories[citation needed] argue that dopamine function may be involved in the salience ('noticeableness') of perceived objects and events, with potentially important stimuli such as: 1) rewarding things or 2) dangerous or threatening things seeming more noticeable or important. This hypothesis argues that dopamine assists decision-making by influencing the priority, or level of desire, of such stimuli to the person concerned. Pharmacological blockade of brain dopamine receptors increases rather than decreases drug-taking behavior. Since blocking dopamine decreases desire, the increase in drug taking behavior may be seen as not a chemical desire but as a deeply psychological desire to just 'feel something'. Deficits in dopamine levels are implicated as one of several possible causes for Adult attention-deficit disorder (AADD), and some types of medications used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/ADD) will help to stimulate dopaminergic systems, leading to potentially heightened sensation, for those afflicted by it and receiving treatment for it. [edit] Links to psychosis Main article: dopamine hypothesis of psychosis Disruption to the dopamine system has also been strongly linked to psychosis and schizophrenia.[7] Dopamine neurons in the mesolimbic pathway are particularly associated with these conditions. This is partly due to the discovery of a class of drugs called the phenothiazines (which block D2 dopamine receptors) that can reduce psychotic symptoms, and partly due to the finding that drugs such as amphetamine and cocaine (which are known to greatly increase dopamine levels) can cause psychosis. Because of this, most modern antipsychotic medication is designed to block dopamine function to varying degrees. [edit] Depression Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is involved in depression. Amphetamines and dopamine reuptake blockers have potent anti-depressant effects but these drugs quickly lose their benefit after they deplete dopamine levels in the brain.Antidepressants appear to primarily enhance serotonergic neurotransmission during preliminary drug administration but it takes several weeks for the antidepressant effect to be noticed. The late effect of antidepressants is thought to involve the indirect serotonergic modulation of dopaminergic neurotranmission. Blocking the D2 dopamine receptor is known to cause relapse in patients that have achieved remission from depression, and such blocking also counteracts the effectiveness of SSRI medication. [edit] Therapeutic use Main article: L-DOPA Levodopa is a dopamine precursor used to treat Parkinson's disease. It is typically co-administered with an inhibitor of peripheral decarboxylation (DDC, dopa decarboxylase), such as carbidopa or benserazide. Inhibitors of alternative metabolic route for dopamine by catechol-O-methyl transferase are also used. These include entacapone and tolcapone. Dopamine is also used as an inotropic drug in patients with shock to increase cardiac output and blood pressure. [edit] Major pathways Mesocortical pathway Mesolimbic pathway Nigrostriatal pathway Tuberoinfundibular pathway Answered by Roselle Lissard 1 year ago.

Dopamine is a reward chemical for the brain. It produces a euphoric feeling. Answered by Melynda Nosacka 1 year ago.


I need help with two medical calculation problem??? can you please help me?
I need help with two medical calculation problem??? can you please help me?Gentamicin 480,000 mcgDose: 4mcg/kg/minPatient weight: 176 poundsFluid volume:175 mlHow many milliliters per hour???How many milligrams per hour.Intropin-- dopamine hydrochloride 800 mgDose: 12 mcg/ kg/ minPatient weight-... Asked by Ayesha Sundby 1 year ago.

I need help with two medical calculation problem??? can you please help me? Gentamicin 480,000 mcg Dose: 4mcg/kg/min Patient weight: 176 pounds Fluid volume:175 ml How many milliliters per hour??? How many milligrams per hour. Intropin-- dopamine hydrochloride 800 mg Dose: 12 mcg/ kg/ min Patient weight- 198 pounds Fluid volume- 500 ml How many milliliters per hour??? How many milligrams per hour??? Can you please help with these problems???? Answered by Dick Brunson 1 year ago.

Much though I would like to help you, I am a little reluctant to do so. The 480 mg dose of gentamicin is a 3-fold overdose for your first patient, and is very likely to put him into renal failure. However, this is how to solve this sort of problem. You first need to convert pounds to kg, so use the conversion 2.2 lb = 1kg, to get the patients' weights in kg. Next, make up the gentamicin solution. 480,000 mcg is going into 175 ml, so you can work out the concentration of the drug from the formula concentration C = drug weight D / volume V That concentration C has units of mcg/ml. Now let us call the first patient's weight in kg W (you have already worked out W). Each minute he is to receive 4 mcg/kg, that is 4 x W mcg. In 1 hour, therefore, he is going to get 4 x W x 60 mcg. There are 1000 mcg in 1 mg, so divide by 1000 to get your final mg/hr. Now you have to work out what volume of fluid is given in 1 hour. You know the concentration C, you know the drug weight in 1 hour (you've just worked it out) and you have the same formula for concentration, weight and volume. Good luck, and suggest to your teacher that it might be better to use real-world numbers. Answered by Bibi Rardin 1 year ago.

at the same time as my cat peed on the settee, it changed into because she had a kidney stone and changed into in discomfort going to the lavatory and she or he mandatory a thanks to get our interest. She hasnt done it when you consider that she had an operation to sparkling up her stones. If this is a unexpected behaviour then it really is conceivable a medical condition and also you should e book her in for a examine up. If there is no longer something incorrect such as her, then her vet can advise some ideas to coach her no longer to attempt this. or you are able to attempt basically putting her in her container each 1/2 hour until eventually she receives the message. also, have you ever replaced manufacturers of clutter presently? Or something else interior the relations individuals replaced, alot of visitors over yuletide/new years, or someone interior the relations away? Cats may nicely be really gentle to rigidity in human beings or substitute of their households so she may calm down if it really is the case. Answered by Adrienne Napieralski 1 year ago.

It's not a three-fold overdose, we commonly use upwards of 7 mg/kg for once-daily dosing........The rest of Peter's response is correct. Answered by Gaynell Sisofo 1 year ago.


I need help with two medical calculation problem??? can you please help me?
Gentamicin 480,000 mcgDose: 4mcg/kg/minPatient weight: 176 poundsFluid volume:175 mlHow many milliliters per hour???How many milligrams per hour.Intropin-- dopamine hydrochloride 800 mgDose: 12 mcg/ kg/ minPatient weight- 198 poundsFluid volume- 500 mlHow many milliliters per hour???How many... Asked by Alvin Calcagni 1 year ago.

Gentamicin 480,000 mcg Dose: 4mcg/kg/min Patient weight: 176 pounds Fluid volume:175 ml How many milliliters per hour??? How many milligrams per hour. Intropin-- dopamine hydrochloride 800 mg Dose: 12 mcg/ kg/ min Patient weight- 198 pounds Fluid volume- 500 ml How many milliliters per hour??? How many milligrams per hour??? Can you please help with these problems???? Answered by Lecia Riegel 1 year ago.

The concentration of the solution is: 480,000 mcg/175ml = 2743 mcg/ml The weight of the patient in kg is: 198 lb * 0.454 kg/lb = 89.9 kg There are 60 minutes in an hour. 4mcg/kg/min * 89.9kg * 60 min/1 hr = 21,576 mcg/hr = 21.57 mg/hr 21,576 mcg * 1 ml/ 2743 mcg = 7.87 ml/hr so 7.87 ml/hr and 21.57 mg/hr. Answered by Rhea Germann 1 year ago.


Prepare 8ml of a 5mg/ml hydrocortisone solution from a 100mg/ml stock solution.?
Question 1: How many mililiters of hydrocortisone and diluent are needed? Question 2: calcuate the amount of drug in miligrams for the following dispensed containers. Ketoconazole 2%, 7fl oz shampoo. Question 3: interpret the following prescriptions and provide the required rates. Medication... Asked by Alecia Lineberger 1 year ago.

Question 1: How many mililiters of hydrocortisone and diluent are needed? Question 2: calcuate the amount of drug in miligrams for the following dispensed containers. Ketoconazole 2%, 7fl oz shampoo. Question 3: interpret the following prescriptions and provide the required rates. Medication intropin 800mg, dose 12mcg/kg/min, patient weight 198lb, fluid volume: 500ml. How many mililiters per hour? How many miligrams per hour? Use the alligation method to answer the following problems. Prepare 400ml of D8W from D20W and sterile water for injection (SWFI). How much of each will be needed? Answered by Kindra Sebastien 1 year ago.

1. 2.2mgs of Hydrocortisone. 6.2mls of solutin 2 . 100mgs of medication dont have time to answer the rest right now Answered by Jillian Fette 1 year ago.


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