Application Information

This drug has been submitted to the FDA under the reference 020637/001.

Names and composition

"GLIADEL" is the commercial name of a drug composed of CARMUSTINE.


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Answered questions

What is the major of chemotherapy agents in anti-cancer drugs ?
Asked by Olen Glavin 1 year ago.

There are many different chemotherapy agents. Different drugs work for different cancers, and they are frequently used in combination. You need to be more specific. Here is a list of chemo drugs: 13-cis-Retinoic Acid 2-CdA 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine 5-Fluorouracil 5-FU 6-Mercaptopurine 6-MP 6-TG 6-Thioguanine Abraxane Accutane ® Actinomycin-D Adriamycin ® Adrucil ® Agrylin ® Ala-Cort ® Aldesleukin Alemtuzumab ALIMTA Alitretinoin Alkaban-AQ ® Alkeran ® All-transretinoic acid Alpha interferon Altretamine Amethopterin Amifostine Aminoglutethimide Anagrelide Anandron ® Anastrozole Arabinosylcytosine Ara-C Aranesp ® Aredia ® Arimidex ® Aromasin ® Arranon ® Arsenic trioxide Asparaginase ATRA Avastin ® Azacitidine BCG BCNU Bevacizumab Bexarotene BEXXAR ® Bicalutamide BiCNU Blenoxane ® Bleomycin Bortezomib Busulfan Busulfex ® C225 Calcium Leucovorin Campath ® Camptosar ® Camptothecin-11 Capecitabine Carac ™ Carboplatin Carmustine Carmustine wafer Casodex ® CC-5013 CCNU CDDP CeeNU Cerubidine ® Cetuximab Chlorambucil Cisplatin Citrovorum Factor Cladribine Cortisone Cosmegen ® CPT-11 Cyclophosphamide Cytadren ® Cytarabine Cytarabine liposomal Cytosar-U ® Cytoxan ® Dacarbazine Dacogen Dactinomycin Darbepoetin alfa Daunomycin Daunorubicin Daunorubicin hydrochloride Daunorubicin liposomal DaunoXome ® Decadron Decitabine Delta-Cortef ® Deltasone ® Denileukin diftitox DepoCyt ™ Dexamethasone Dexamethasone acetate Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Dexasone Dexrazoxane DHAD DIC Diodex Docetaxel Doxil ® Doxorubicin Doxorubicin liposomal Droxia ™ DTIC DTIC-Dome ® Duralone ® Efudex ® Eligard ™ Ellence ™ Eloxatin ™ Elspar ® Emcyt ® Epirubicin Epoetin alfa Erbitux ™ Erlotinib Erwinia L-asparaginase Estramustine Ethyol Etopophos ® Etoposide Etoposide Phosphate Eulexin ® Evista ® Exemestane Fareston ® Faslodex ® Femara ® Filgrastim Floxuridine Fludara ® Fludarabine Fluoroplex ® Fluorouracil Fluorouracil (cream) Fluoxymesterone Flutamide Folinic Acid FUDR ® Fulvestrant G-CSF Gefitinib Gemcitabine Gemtuzumab ozogamicin Gemzar ® GleevecTM Gliadel wafer (t) GM-CSF Goserelin granulocyte - colony stimulating factor (t) Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (o) Halotestin (t) Herceptin (t) Hexadrol (t) Hexalen (t) Hexamethylmelamine (t) HMM (t) Hycamtin (t) Hydrea (t) Hydrocort Acetate (t) Hydrocortisone Hydrocortisone sodium phosphate Hydrocortisone sodium succinate Hydrocortone phosphate (t) Hydroxyurea Ibritumomab Ibritumomab Tiuxetan Idamycin ® Idarubicin Ifex ® IFN-alpha Ifosfamide IL-11 IL-2 Imatinib mesylate Imidazole Carboxamide Interferon alfa Interferon Alfa-2b (PEG conjugate) (o) Interleukin - 2 (t) Interleukin-11 (o) Intron A® (interferon alfa-2b) Iressa ® Irinotecan Isotretinoin Kidrolase (t) Lanacort (t) L-asparaginase (t) LCR (o) Lenalidomide Letrozole Leucovorin Leukeran (t) Leukine (t) Leuprolide Leurocristine (o) Leustatin (t) Liposomal Ara-C (t) Liquid Pred (t) Lomustine L-PAM (o) L-Sarcolysin (o) Lupron (t) Lupron Depot ® Matulane (t) Maxidex (t) Mechlorethamine Mechlorethamine Hydrochloride Medralone (t) Medrol ® Megace (t) Megestrol Megestrol Acetate (o) Melphalan Mercaptopurine Mesna Mesnex (t) Methotrexate Methotrexate Sodium (o) Methylprednisolone Meticorten (t) Mitomycin Mitomycin-C (o) Mitoxantrone M-Prednisol (t) MTC (o) MTX (o) Mustargen (t) Mustine Mutamycin (t) Myleran (t) Mylocel (t) Mylotarg (t) Navelbine ® Nelarabine Neosar (t) Neulasta (t) Neumega (t) Neupogen ® Nexavar ® Nilandron (t) Nilutamide Nipent ® Nitrogen Mustard (o) Novaldex (t) Novantrone (t) Octreotide Octreotide acetate (o) Oncospar (t) Oncovin (t) Ontak (t) Onxal (t) Oprevelkin Orapred (t) Orasone (t) Oxaliplatin Paclitaxel Paclitaxel Protein-bound Pamidronate Panretin (t) Paraplatin (t) Pediapred (t) PEG Interferon Pegaspargase Pegfilgrastim PEG-INTRON (t) PEG-L-asparaginase PEMETREXED Pentostatin Phenylalanine Mustard (o) Platinol (t) Platinol-AQ (t) Prednisolone Prednisone Prelone (t) Procarbazine PROCRIT ® Proleukin (t) Prolifeprospan 20 with Carmustine implant (t) Purinethol ® Raloxifene Revlimid ® Rheumatrex (t) Rituxan (t) Rituximab Roferon-A® (interferon alfa-2a) Rubex (t) Rubidomycin hydrochloride (t) Sandostatin ® Sandostatin LAR (t) Sargramostim Solu-Cortef (t) Solu-Medrol (t) Sorafenib STI-571 Streptozocin SU11248 Sunitinib Sutent ® Tamoxifen Tarceva ® Targretin (t) Taxol ® Taxotere ® Temodar ® Temozolomide Teniposide TESPA (o) Thalidomide Thalomid ® TheraCys (t) Thioguanine Thioguanine Tabloid ® Thiophosphoamide (o) Thioplex (t) Thiotepa TICE ® Toposar (t) Topotecan Toremifene Tositumomab Trastuzumab Tretinoin Trexall (t) Trisenox (t) TSPA (o) VCR (o) Velban (t) Velcade ® VePesid (t) Vesanoid (t) Viadur (t) Vidaza (t) Vinblastine Vinblastine Sulfate (o) Vincasar Pfs (t) Vincristine Vinorelbine Vinorelbine tartrate (o) VLB (o) VM-26 (o) VP-16 (t) Vumon (t) Xeloda ® Zanosar (t) Zevalin TM Zinecard (t) Zoladex ® Zoledronic acid Zometa ® See? There's a lot of them. Answered by Genaro Kubsch 1 year ago.

antineoplastics, monoclonal antibodies, Answered by Dorthea Gulizio 1 year ago.

Please see the webpages for more details on Chemotherapy. Answered by Darren Arcuo 1 year ago.

Can glioblastoma be cured?
He is very healthy, but now is in a coma because he had a convulsion, and when he was in recuperataion he took out the tube for brething.... Asked by Kourtney Gosier 1 year ago.

There is always hope. Cures have happened. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive form of the primary brain tumors known collectively as gliomas. These tumors arise from the supporting, glial cells of the brain during childhood and in adults. These growths do not spread throughout the body like other forms of cancer, but cause symptoms by invading the brain. Diagnosis Gliomas are graded by their microscopic appearance. As a rule their behavior can be predicted from this histology: grade I (pilocytic astrocytomas) and grade II (benign astrocytomas) tumors grow slowly over many years while grade IV (GBM) grows rapidly, invading and altering brain function. Untreated, GMB’s are rapidly lethal. Monotomous appearance of normal brain white matter under the microscope Gbm contains atypical cells, dividing cells, necrosis and clumps of cells around blood vessels The area of the brain first involved by the tumor influences the first symptoms of GMB. Progressive weakness, speech or visual loss occurs when "eloquent" brain regions are involved. More "silent" areas of the brain allow the tumors to become large before symptoms arise. In this case increased pressure in the head produces headache and rarely, visual loss from swelling of the optic nerves. The tumors also can irritate the brain, causing epileptic seizures. Rarely, spontaneous hemorrhage into the tumor yields a stroke syndrome, with the sudden development of a neurological deficit. GBM’s usually arise de novo or may develop from lower grade gliomas after many years. Distinct genetic alterations in primary and secondary GBM’s have been identified. As a rule they do not run in families. Once symptoms occur, the diagnosis of GBM is usually straight-forward. The tumor can be imaged by contrast-enhanced MRI scan. Progressive growth of the lesion on serial MR scans differentiates tumor from stroke. A PET scan showing increased uptake of glucose can also help separate a diagnosis of tumor from stroke. An open or needle biopsy provides tissue for microscopic diagnosis. GBM Treatment The treatment of GBM has evolved over the past 50 years. Controversy over the value of various treatment modalities arises because many factors significantly influence the survival of patients harboring grade IV gliomas. In 1993 Curran and co-workers developed six prognostic classes of grade III and grade IV gliomas based on a review of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group treatment protocols. Click here to see a summary of this important work Significant predictors of survival included: · Grade III (anaplastic astrocytoma) v. grade IV (GBM) diagnosis · Patient’s age greater or less than 50 years · Abnormal mental status · Gross-total excision v. subtotal-excision · Karnofsky Performance Scale > 70 (patient capable of independent living) In summary, those who respond best to treatment are individuals under 40 yr.s age, with little or no symptoms of tumor, who have under gone gross-total removal of tumor and have a normal mental status. Median survival in this group was 18 months. Modern, effective treatment for GBM includes the following: · Surgery to remove the maximum volume of tumor · Radiation therapy · Chemotherapy Other treatment modalities, which show promise in selected patients, are: Radiosurgical boost to residual or recurrent tumor · Local chemotherapy for recurrent tumor (Gliadel wavers) · Gene therapy with herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene GBM therapy by the Neurosurgical Medical Clinic The diagnosis of GBM requires tissue obtained by surgical methods. Surgery varies from stereotactic needle biopsy of deep tumors to open surgical excision of surface tumors using computer image guidance (frameless stereotaxis). Additional imaging methods at our disposal in San Diego are PET scanning and MR spectroscopy. Much evidence now exists to support the notion that the safe removal of a maximum volume of tumor improves function and prolongs survival in our patients. Discolored cerebral cortex beneath forceps is a glioblastoma before excision Excision cavity in the cortex following removal with optical tracking system Pre operative MRI scan showing tumor in the frontal lobe Post operative scan showing absence of the frontal lobe tumor Within a few days of surgery a MR scan is obtained to document any residual tumor. If significant, enhancing tumor is identified in post operative MR scans a boost of Gamma Knife radiosurgery is sometimes given before or after fractionated radiotherapy . At recurrence of the tumor there are several options which are individualized to the patient. A second resection of recurrent tumor may prolong survival in selected patients. At second operation, Gliadel wafers containing a chemotherapeutic agent (BCNU) can be applied to the tumor cavity. A second boost of Gamma Knife radiosurgery can also be administered. Finally patients may elect to undergo chemotherapy after consultation with local oncologists. Chemotherapy is the most controversial of treatments as many studies have failed to show prolonged median survival in treated patients, although the proportion of long term survivors may be somewhat greater. Answered by Lin Desutter 1 year ago.

Is Glioblastoma Curable Answered by Leta Pallante 1 year ago.

What do you you about brain cancer?
~he was given 2-9 months to live Asked by Taylor Kernighan 1 year ago.

Not a family member but, my best friend has a brain tumor. Unfortunately, the prognosis for cancer (especially brain tumors) is worse the older the patient. Most elderly brain tumors patients have glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). It is the most deadly type of brain tumor with average survival of about 12 months. Typical treatment involves debulking the tumor by surgery. They cannot remove the whole tumor because gliomas are very invasive. They may insert chemotherapy wafers (Gliadel) into the space previously occurpied by the tumor. The surgery should relieve many of the symptoms since the tumor will not be pressing against healthy areas of the brain. He will probably be on anti-seizure medication and steroids to prevent brain swelling. After being discharged, standard therapy is usually chemotherapy with Procarbizine or Temodar. Both are oral. Follow-up radiation and additional surgery to debulk may be a possibility too. A clinical trial may be an option to consider. Best wishes to your family especially your grandfather in this difficult time. Answered by Mika Snedegar 1 year ago.

They will do surgery and get the tumor or what they can of it. He will then have radiation therapy. chemo does not work for the brain. His speech will most likely return. My husband has a brain tumor and has had one removed 3 years ago. The first one was removed by craniotomy. This one was treated with radiation using the gamma knife surgery.At that time they said he would live 3 months if he was lucky. Well it has been 3 years. Don't dwell on the life expectancy. Doctors can be wrong. They don't know how long a person will live. Email me if you like. Answered by Berry Sowers 1 year ago.

My father was diagnosed in 1978 with a fist-sized brain tumor. He was given 1-2 years to live. He lived 22 years. Every case is different. Good luck. Answered by Josie Nodine 1 year ago.

I am so very sorry to hear this. My Father had melanoma, it eventualy spread to his brain. He did under go the surgery, but lived a short time after that. Cancer of any type is funny as When the surgery is performed, the bodies blood cells go into high gear, this is part of what usually causes it to spread. Doctors do not see what is happening at the molecular level though, so it is not seen until it takes root and begins to develop the tumor. I would not lie to you, or give you a false hope. but I can say to you that I have seen the miracle Healing of God, and this I have seen on many occasions. I would put my Faith in this at this time, and Talk to your Grandpa, and if He forgoes a surgery, Talk to him afterwards, as I promise to you and your Family that although you or the doctors may not think he can hear you, I assure you 100% that He actually can. I saw my Dad and he was bed ridden and alsmost vegatative in condition, but my wife sang to him and he squeezed her hand, and I spoke to him and gave him scripture and he turned to me and squeezed my hand. We prayed over him continuesly and one day I called him and he was out of the bed sitting in his favorite chair and he spoke to me perfectly clear. Faith is powerful, Love is also Powerful, in this time Share Both of these things with him. Answered by Taren Yoh 1 year ago.

I am thinking nice thoughts for you. Both my parents died of cancer (mom in 1994 - gall bladder, dad in 2000 - colon). This morning I donated to American Cancer Society. I hope my contribution can help win this war. I have confidence that with enough research, we will be able to get rid of this disease. For yourself, please consider eating a low fat diet, drink a lot of green tea, don't be obese, eat fruits, exercise a lot, and have a positive attitude. My thoughts are with you. Answered by Laraine Drenner 1 year ago.

What does stage 4 brain cancer mean?...We have a cousin that has just been told that he has it,,,?
why does bad things happen to good people ,,,, How long do you think we have to celebrate his life? Asked by Adriana Stalling 1 year ago.

Stage 4? You probably mean Grade 4. Oncologist generally do not use "stages" for gliomas because they rarely metasisize (spread) outside the central nervous system (CNS). The grading of a glioma is between 1 and 4. This grade is a composite measure of mitosis (growth rate) and degree of cell differentiation (how mutated the cancer cells appear). Grade 4 gliomas are also known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The prognosis is very poor usually about 12 months. Treament for GBM typically includes (multiple) surgery to debulk the tumor, stereotactic radiation (Gamma knife) and/or chemotherapy (Temodar is now first line. Other chemotherapy may include BCNU via Gliadel wafers or intravenously and oral PCV). As for the philosphical question about bad things happening to good people, things happen to all people. Good and bad. If there is something controlling everything, we could not possibly understand why. Answered by Carmel Criger 1 year ago.

Brain cancer stages don't actually mean much because because stage IV is when the cancer is spreading (metastasis), and all brain cancers are metastases by definition. What's important is the location and rate of spread. Its possible that with a stage IV brain cancer, the tumor might be treatable. Don't write your cousin off yet, but a good celebration wouldn't hurt - maybe it can be a kick off for the battle ahead. Answered by Jarod Rozgonyi 1 year ago.

i barely know what the stages mean but spennd as much time with him as much as you can. i could be wrong but i think stage 4 is the highest for cancer. times like these life isnt fair. =( sry Answered by Suzann Girardeau 1 year ago.


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