Application Information

This drug has been submitted to the FDA under the reference 084463/001.

Names and composition

"ETHCHLORVYNOL" is the commercial name of a drug composed of ETHCHLORVYNOL.

Answered questions

Hello please i need help with this question, i simply can't find the answer. thanks?
A 49-year-old patient recently relocated from another state. He reports that he as been taking tranquilizers for over ten years. He cannot remember the name, but states that it has a definite mint like aftertaste. Which drug do you suspect that he has been taking? 1. Chloral hydrate 2. Meprobamate... Asked by Bea Trifero 6 months ago.

A 49-year-old patient recently relocated from another state. He reports that he as been taking tranquilizers for over ten years. He cannot remember the name, but states that it has a definite mint like aftertaste. Which drug do you suspect that he has been taking? 1. Chloral hydrate 2. Meprobamate 3. Paraldehyde 4. Ethchlorvynol Answered by Jonah Godeaux 6 months ago.

Ok. I looked on the drug database we have (Lexi-Comp), and all of this meds have an unpleasant strong taste, but the only one that mention the mint-like taste is Ethchlorvynol. This med is really old, almost not used. When used is only for insomia. If this is a real case, I'll ask about how the pill looks like. Answered by Benita Edmister 6 months ago.

it is /chloral hydrate/ a lot /of references /on net /type/ in/ chloral hydrate mint Answered by Albert Lafontain 6 months ago.

Check his medical records. Call the former pharmacist. There are many simple ways to find out. Answered by Laveta Ofsak 6 months ago.

Do sleeping pills and tranquilizers do damage to you somehow?
Asked by Bridget Hindsman 6 months ago.

That is a very broad categorization of drugs that include barbiturates (phenobarbital, Nembutal, Seconal, butalbital), benzodiazepines (Xanax, Valium, temazepam, Rohypnol), certain carbamates (eg., meprobamate, carisoprodol), certain chloral derivatives (chloral hydrate), certain thiamine-like substances (eg., clomethiazole), tertiary carbinols (eg., ethchlorvynol, methylparafynol, 2-Methyl-2-butanol),1,3,5-Trioxane derivatives (paraldehyde), piperidinediones (glutethimide), imidazopyridines (zolpidem), pyrazolopyrimidines (zaleplon), cyclopyrrolones (zopiclone, eszopiclone), and others. And many drugs like antipsychotic/neuroleptics (sometimes improperly called "major tranquilizers"), antihistamines, opioid analgesics, alcohol and others are used to induce sleep or sedation. In general most hypnotics (sleep inducing agents), sedatives, and anxiolytics (anti-anxiety agents) are not toxic at therapeutic doses. In addition most sedative/hypnotics and anxiolytics are GABAnergic drugs and produce their effects by acting on the neurotransmitter GABA, the brains principal inhibitory neurotransmitter. However when used in large amounts for a long time some neurotoxicity can occur and certain drugs may cause nephrotoxicity (kidney toxicity) or hepatotoxicity (liver toxicity). Most of these problems are most common in older rarely-used hypnotics like barbiturates. But even most of the older drugs don't typically cause any physical harm, their biggest risk typically has to do with the fact they have a significant addictive potential and are more dangerous in an overdose situation compared to new drugs. As long as medications are used appropriately they are actually fairly safe. Answered by Regine Thell 6 months ago.

WHICH sleeping pills? WHAT tranquilizers? HOW MUCH did you take? Nobody can answer your question without knowing what specific drugs we're talking about here. Suffice it to say that overdoses of ANY drugs are potentially damaging to you in a wide variety of ways. Answered by Alishia Skomo 6 months ago.

That's up to your doctor to decide...but usually if taken as directed, no. If too many are taken, and especially with alcohol or other drugs, they can be deadly. They can also be very addicting, so they are not to play around with! Answered by Natividad Boelter 6 months ago.

Replacement for ativan?
I have been taking Lopazepam(ativan) and was wondering if there was a vitamin or herb that would help my anxiety like ativan would Asked by Rosalina Bode 6 months ago.

Not at all. Ativan (lorazepam) is a potent anxiolytic that is effective for mild to the most extreme levels of anxiety. Only drugs with similar pharmacological actions will produce effects like Ativan, which is chemically classified as a benzodiazepine. Other classes of drugs with very similar actions could substitute but all those drugs are either/or far more dangerous or ineffective and include barbiturates, chloral hydrate, meprobamate, ethchlorvynol, glutethimide, and methaqualone (the last three drugs are not available in most countries). Vitamins are not helpful for almost any medical problem unless the problem is caused by a vitamin deficiency. Ativan acts by enhancing the effect of the brains principal inhibitory neurotransmitter called GABA. By enhancing GABA the amount of electrical transmission in the brain is reduced, causing the brain to be more "quiet," causing anxiolysis (reducing anxiety) and at higher doses sleep. Vitamins do not act on GABA at all. Some herbs do have very mild, almost non existent effects on GABA. However you would not experience any effects, it would be useless much like comparing the power of a small pistol to a nuclear weapon. Also drugs with effects like Ativan are controlled substances (this does include Ativan) because these types of drugs can potentially be abused (it is rare for addiction to occur, especially if you don't have a history of addiction). ANYTHING that could produce Ativan-like effects would also be controlled substances. Talk to your doctor if you have concerns about taking Ativan. There are completely different types of drugs that are often effective and there are similar drugs that may be more effective (if the Ativan is a problem) like Xanax (alprazolam), Klonopin, Rivotril (clonazepam), Valium (diazepam), Serax, Oxpam (oxazepam), and Lectopam (bromazepam). Also do NOT discontinue Ativan without talking with your doctor. If Ativan is taken continuously long term it can’t be abruptly stopped because in many people (1/3-1/2) the body becomes physically dependent on the drug (this is NOT the same as addiction) and if the drug is stopped too quickly the body can't adapt to the change fast enough, causing physical withdrawal. This is avoided by discontinuing the drug over several days or weeks. Answered by Maggie Bunt 6 months ago.

Ativan Substitute Answered by Jesus Mcfalls 6 months ago.

As far as herbs and supplements go l theanine and lemon balm and valerian root extract are supposed to be good, before my doctor gave me ativan she had me on hydroxyzine which isn't as good but it does take the edge off when I don't have Ativan and it's not as addictive (it's similar to Benadryl) , hope that helps Answered by Amelia Ourso 6 months ago.

There are two Excellent replacements. (1) Apigenin 50mg 2 - 2x/day (2) Kava Kava Extract Both can be purchased from Swanson Online. M.D. s know nothing about herbal medicine. Answered by Kimberlee Paulus 6 months ago.

No herb is as strong or active as the pharmaceutical ativan. Many people find relief from taking cannabis. Let's talk more, Answered by Kali Dillworth 6 months ago.

try st johns wart or passion flower, whole foods stores. and trader joes might have something and bach flowers rescuse remedys might work, and flower ensenses might work? lavandar ones and aspen one works one at a time not all in a bottle.....seperate u can see how they work... peace Answered by Debbi Futral 6 months ago.

Need help understanding coroners report or autopsy report?
In the report the doctor indicates that an overdose was doubtful, however, a sedative screen reveals the following substances (Alcohol, Barbiturate, Meprobamate, Glutethimide, Methyprylon, Ethchlorvynol, Diazepam, Chlordiazepoxide, and Methaqualone. All of the above listed substances are sedatives and related... Asked by Bethanie Dolce 6 months ago.

In the report the doctor indicates that an overdose was doubtful, however, a sedative screen reveals the following substances (Alcohol, Barbiturate, Meprobamate, Glutethimide, Methyprylon, Ethchlorvynol, Diazepam, Chlordiazepoxide, and Methaqualone. All of the above listed substances are sedatives and related drugs. It appears to me that the individual in question overdosed or was druged. Is it common to find that many drugs in a body?? I don't know what to think. Please help! Answered by Elicia Brister 6 months ago.

hi,,,, you need to take this report to your local Dr or see the medical examiner that did the report as it looks very strange to me too.... not normally do you have that many sedatives you body at one time and as for the Overdose they mean the heavy drugs etc etc . if it was my report id want answers too, don't rest till you get them. how old was this person and what was there gender because that can have an effect on the report as well Answered by Arielle Showe 6 months ago.

the reports that you mentioned that were conflicting...were they from 2 different doctors? because im wondering if the first statement was made by the patients personal physician before the toxicology reports came back...and the second report noting the drugs and assumption statement regarding overdose came from the pathologist.( whom presumably performed the autopsy and requested the toxicology reports) i beleive that either the medical examiner or the coroner (depending on which system your county employs) is responsible for determining and recording the ultimate cause of death.they are the ones that submit the drug tests( by drawing blood from the organs) to the drug testing company and they receive the test results.they also do further medical research on the deceased like reading medical charts and conferring with the persons doctor(s). i hope this helped you a bit. depending on your relationship to the deceased( family member, or just a freind) will be a determining factor of whether or not you may request more info from the doc or coroner/ medical examiner. sometimes situations like these can become very delicate, especially if there is insurance involved. i wish you all the best and i hope you find some peace about this issue soon. Answered by Alton Vandeusen 6 months ago.

Don't hold me to this answer because it really depends on medical conditions of the person that has passed away and what medications that they were taken. It may be common to find those medications in the body if they are medications that were prescribed for the person. But if not,no. Normally unless a person has ingested diazepam (otherwise known as valium) it wouldn't be found in the body. I'm guessing even though they have that many substances found none of the substances have found in a great enough dose to suggest that it caused death. Seems as though you need to ask a pharmacist or a doctor. Answered by Soila Lyda 6 months ago.

The report says overdose is doubtful so that means they didn't find enough of anyone substance to in the body to say that he overdosed on any one drug. THe fact that the person had that many drugs in his system makes me think that he might have had drugs that are not compatable with each other but I am not sure. Perhaps you could discuss this with your pharamcist. Answered by Vinita Yurek 6 months ago.

the autopsy shows that these drugs were in the body at the time of death.. It sounds to me that the person had several seditives in their body plus alcohol....But the person doing the autopsy did not think that these drugs along with alcohol was enough content in the body to cause the person to over dose...Even though these drugs were found in the body,it could have been just trace amounts,but not enough of the drugs to be considered an over dose...If this was an older person or a sick person or someone under a doctors care can have several trace amounts in their body,but not enough to be the cause of death....In an autopsy every little trace is made note of,even if its a tiny bit....If large amounts of any of these drugs were found in the autopsy then it would raise a question of over dose.... Answered by Ileen Apodoca 6 months ago.

It should be. It should be made available to you, minus the photos. I had a friend who committed suicide. They were permitted to get a copy of the autopsy report without the photos. Answered by Barbara Lotta 6 months ago.

doesn't necessarily mean drug OD. More than likely an adverse reaction from mixing that many drugs/chemicals. That many things can cause issues w/ heart and other organs. Answered by Dovie Altschuler 6 months ago.

How much urine is needed to do an extensive lab test break down of opiates?
I know they had about 3 oz to do multiple tests after delivery of my baby. I know they wanted to test for illicit drug use. Opiates did come up in my system. I was prescribed cough syrup that had morphine in it and i want to make sure they had enough urine to do the extensive lab work to back up that it was only... Asked by Kristel Donnan 6 months ago.

I know they had about 3 oz to do multiple tests after delivery of my baby. I know they wanted to test for illicit drug use. Opiates did come up in my system. I was prescribed cough syrup that had morphine in it and i want to make sure they had enough urine to do the extensive lab work to back up that it was only cough syrup. Also, what and how does it get broken down? What illicits drugs can they break down? Answered by Serina Axelsen 6 months ago.

Any toxicology lab will be able to detect the "broken down" metabolites of any substance they want to find: If cough syrup is all your worried about then tell "them" exactly what you took and they can tell if it's the same compounds or not using GC/MS (gas chromotography/mass spec) Drug Profile, Urine (Nine Drugs), Immunoassay With GC/MS Confirmation Synonyms: IA-9 Test Includes: Amphetamines; barbiturates; benzodiazepines; cannabinoids (marijuana); cocaine; methadone (Dolophine®); opiates (codeine, morphine only); phencyclidine (PCP); propoxyphene Specimen: Urine (random) Volume: 45 mL (about 4 tablespoons) Container: Use plastic urine drug bottle and evidence tape or tamper-evident container for forensic specimen. Collection kits are available by request from the laboratory. GC/MS confirmation Methodology: Initial test by immunoassay; confirmation of positives by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) ---------------------- For a typical drug screen usually 20 mL of urine should be enough for additional drug testing. (per If a compound wants to be detected, it can be found using the instrumentation available in most toxicology labs. •Volatiles: acetone; ethanol; isopropanol; methanol •*Amphetamines: amphetamine (Dexedrine®), ephedrine/pseudoephedrine; methamphetamine (Desoxyn®); phenmetrazine (Preludin®); phentermine (Ionamin®); phenylpropanolamine •*Antidepressants: amitriptyline (Elavil®); desipramine (Norpramin®); doxepin (Adapin®, Sinequan®); imipramine (Tofranil®); nortriptyline (Pamelor®) •*Barbiturates: amobarbital (Amytal®); butabarbital (Butisol Sodium®); pentobarbital (Nembutal®); phenobarbital (Luminal®); secobarbital (Seconal®) •*Benzodiazepines: chlordiazepoxide (Librium®); diazepam (Valium®) •*Opiates: codeine; morphine •*Phenothiazines: chlorpromazine (Thorazine®); promazine (Sparine®); thioridazine (Mellaril®) •Others: acetaminophen (Tylenol®, Datril®); caffeine; carbamazepine (Tegretol®); cimetidine (Tagamet®); cocaine and/or metabolite; diphenhydramine (Benadryl®); ethchlorvynol (Placidyl®); glutethimide (Doriden®); meperidine (Demerol®); meprobamate (Miltown®, Equanil); methadone (Dolophine®); nicotine; pentazocine (Talwin®); phencyclidine (PCP); propoxyphene (Darvon®) or its metabolite norpropoxyphene; quinine/quinidine *Reported as a class if negative. Listed drugs reported if positive. Urine testing shows drug use over the last 2 or 3 days for amphetamines, cocaine, and opiates. Marijuana and its metabolites, cannabinoids, may be detectable for several weeks. Hair samples, which test the root end of the hair, reflect drug use within the last 2 to 3 months but not the most recent 2-3 weeks - the amount of time it takes for the hair to grow. Saliva detects which drugs have been used in the last 24 hours. Samples of sweat may be collected on an absorbent patch worn for several days to weeks and therefore can indicate drug use at any point during that extended period of time. These other types of samples are often used for specific purposes. For instance, hair samples may be used as an alternative to urine testing for employment or accident drug testing. Sweat testing may be used as a court-ordered monitoring tool in those who have been convicted of drug use, while saliva is often used by the insurance industry to test insurance applicants for drug use. Answered by Julene Gallacher 6 months ago.

This Site Might Help You. RE: How much urine is needed to do an extensive lab test break down of opiates? I know they had about 3 oz to do multiple tests after delivery of my baby. I know they wanted to test for illicit drug use. Opiates did come up in my system. I was prescribed cough syrup that had morphine in it and i want to make sure they had enough urine to do the extensive lab work to back up... Answered by Trina Harbach 6 months ago.

It is possible he will fail the lab test. The home tests are not the same and aren't as good as the lab tests. There is a bit of misinformation out there and that is cocaine is out of your system in 2-3 days. Well while that might be true LABS DON'T TEST FOR THE DRUG ITSELF. Yes, that is true, they look for the metabolite. A metabolite is something that the body produces when it ingests something, in the case of cocaine it is "benzoylecgonine" that will stay around long after the drug is gone, up to 30 days for a frequent user. THE DRUG ITSELF can stay in your bloodstream up to 72 hours. It can stay in your urine for about 1 or up to 3 days after single use. Habitual or chronic use can be detected in urine for up to 12 weeks depending on quantity, duration, and frequency of use. Answered by Kathleen Hoelscher 6 months ago.

Who is "they"? Are you on probation or parole and court-ordered to submit to drug testing? Is this a pre-employment or random employment drug testing in accordance with your company's policies? If not, then no one can drug test you without your consent. Whatever you do, don't use synthetic urine. I used it once and it came back positive for THC. Answered by Jetta Fabrizio 6 months ago.

Prozac overdose...........?
Is it possible? How much would you have to take? And, would it kill you? This is for a report. We need to write a fictional story of suicide. Mine is about overdosing, and I want to be accurate... Thanks! Asked by Olen Baute 6 months ago.

Drugs commonly overdosed on Barbiturates: - Amobarbital - Secobarbital - Pentobarbital Benzodiazepines: - Temazepam - Nitrazepam - Triazolam - Nimetazepam Opiates: - Heroin - Morphine - Methadone - Hydromorphone - Codeine - Propoxyphene Sedatives/Hypnotics: - Ethyl Alcohol - Methaqualone - GHB - Ketamine - Glutethimide (Doriden) - Ethchlorvynol (Placidyl) Stimulants: - Amphetamine - Cocaine - Methamphetamine Other Drugs: - Aspirin Answered by Clementine Mutchler 6 months ago.

Any medicine taken in extra could have severe effects. An overdose of Prozac would be deadly. besides, combining Prozac with specific different drugs would reason indicators of overdose. in case you think an overdose, look for medical interest as we communicate. basic indicators of Prozac overdose incorporate: Nausea, rapid heartbeat, seizures, sleepiness, vomiting different indicators of Prozac overdose incorporate: Coma, delirium, fainting, severe fever, atypical heartbeat, low blood tension, mania, inflexible muscular tissues, sweating, stupor Answered by Keesha Poppe 6 months ago.

nah...prozac isn't strong enough. Go with something like xanax (also an anti-depressant but for very anxious days). That would kill someone. And it would probably be 50mgs total. pills come in .25, .5, 1, 2 mg doses. j Answered by Kelley Whistle 6 months ago.

What are some phsycoactive drugs?
Asked by Marianela Fortune 6 months ago.

A psychoactive/psychotropic drug is defined as a substance of natural, semisynthetic, or synthetic origin that may or may not be legal or have medical value and affects the nervous system, primarily the central nervous system, and alters brain function, resulting in changes in cognition, perception, mood, and/or behaviour. Examples include: Benzodiazepines: Xanax (alprazolam), Librium (chlordiazepoxide), Klonopin, Rivotril (clonazepam), Valium (diazepam), Ativan (lorazepam), Rohypnol (flunitrazepam), Restoril, Normison, Euhypnos (temazepam), Halcion (triazolam), and Mogadon (nitrazepam) Barbiturates Luminal (phenobarbital), Nembutal (pentobarbital), Mebaral (mephobarbital), Seconal (secobarbital), Butisol (butabarbital), and Amytal (amobarbital) Amphetamines Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts), Desoxyn (methamphetamine), Dexedrine (dextroamphetamine), Vyvanse (lisdexamfetamine), and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy). Opioids (narcotics) Codeine (Tylenol #3, Codeine Contin), Morphine (MS Contin, MS-IR), Hydrocodone (Vicodin, Norco, Lortab, Lorcet), Oxycodone (OxyContin, Percocet, Oxy-IR), Oxymorphone (Opana), Hydromorphone (Dilaudid, Exalgo, Hydromorph Contin), Diacetylmorphine/diamorphine (Heroin), Fentanyl (Duragesic), Pethidine/meperidine (Demerol), and Methadone (Dolophine). Antihistamines Vistaril, Atarax (hydroxyzine), Diclectin (doxylamine), and Benadryl (diphenhydramine) Hallucinogens Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin/psilocin mushrooms, and Salvia divinorum Antipsychotics (neuroleptics) Haldol (haloperidol), Thorazine, Largactil (chlorpromazine), Stelazine (trifluoperazine), Abilify (aripiprazole), Geodon, Zeldox (ziprasidone), Risperdal (risperidone), Seroquel (quetiapine), and Zyprexa (olanzapine). Antidepressants Elavil (amitriptyline), Tofranil (imipramine), Nardil (phenelzine), Paxil (paroxetine), Prozac (fluoxetine), Zoloft (sertraline), Effexor (venlafaxine), Desyrel (trazodone), and Wellbutrin (bupropion) Mood stabilizers/anticonvulsants/antiepilepti... (AEDs) Eskalith (lithium carbonate), PMS-Lithium Citrate (lithium citrate), Keppra (levetiracetam), Dilantin (phenytoin), Lamictal (lamotrigine), Tegretol (carbamazepine), Trileptal (oxcarbazepine), Topamax (topiramate), Neurontin (gabapentin), and Depakote (valproate semisodium, divalproex sodium) Anxiolytics/tranquilizers Miltown, Equanil (meprobamate), Lyrica (pregabalin), and most barbiturates and benzodiazepines are also anxiolytics/tranquilizers. Sedative/Hypnotics Ambien (zolpidem), Sonata, Starnoc (zaleplon), Imovane, Rhovane (zopiclone), Lunesta (eszopiclone), Heminevrin (clomethiazole, chlormethiazole), Somnote, Noctec (chloral hydrate), Rozerem (ramelteon), Placidyl (ethchlorvynol), Doriden (glutethimide), Quaalude (methaqualone) and most barbiturates and benzodiazepines are also used as sedative/hypnotics. Stimulants/ sympathomimetics Focalin (dexmethylphenidate), Ritalin, Attenta, Concerta, Methylin, Metadate CD, Metadate ER, Methylin ER, Ritalin LA, Ritalin SR, Daytrana (methylphenidate), Provigil, Alertec (modafinil), Nuvigil (armodafanil), cocaine/crack, caffeine, nicotine, and all amphetamines are also stimulants/ sympathomimetics Lastly drugs are classified either by their clinical classification or their chemical classification. Clinical classification is more commonly used and more difficult to understand- examples include antidepressants, pain killers, sleeping pills, narcotics, anti-anxiety medications, uppers, downers, stimulants, and depressants. This terminology is over simplified and does not take into account the fact that all drugs have multiple uses. Also using clinical classifications is typically ambiguous since people may define things differently- for example many people consider downers/depressants to include opioids and many believe that depressants cause depression (which is rarely true). I have listed a mix of drugs, some classified chemically (amphetamines, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, opioids) and some classified clinically to make it a bit less complicated. Answered by Eleanor Tennison 6 months ago. You'll find info on every known psychoactive. Answered by Tamra Gurganious 6 months ago.

Does anyone know what "jellies" are?
Asked by Raeann Jemmings 6 months ago.

Hi, Karen - if I remember correctly (which is really pushing the envelope these days), I'm pretty sure that "jellies" are also known as "jelly beans", trade name "Placidyl" (non-proprietary name: Ethchlorvynol). Placidyl is a really strong sedative-hypnotic drug, has a heavy side-effect profile, and is highly addictive (rarely prescribed, and then for usually no more than seven days). Jellies are also a loose term for any tranquilizer, including, as someone else already said, Valium. Sounds like they're something to steer clear of. Good luck. Answered by Cris Schinke 6 months ago.

If i can remember back to my Chav school days enough i think its valium. Drousy prescription pill we used to take. Dont go there love.. they totally suck. make oyu speak like a complete idiot and oyu end up looking like pete docherty. your worht so much more. Im glad i got out of that. Some of my school friends are now addicted to herion after trying that. Answered by Michaela Donivan 6 months ago.

well seein how ur question is in "mens health" id say,,,its wen a mans penis is semi hard (like jelly,,,not yet hard,,,but not soft niether). Answered by Nannie Romanello 6 months ago.

They are a type of shoe worn by women. Answered by Noella Vebel 6 months ago.

How does the toxicity of Alcohol compare to that of Benzodiazepines?
I understand that ethanol is toxic to the human body, in particular the liver. But benzodiazepines and alcohol have cross-tolerance, which is why benzodiazepines are prescribed to treat dangerous withdrawal. But are benzos toxic in any way themselves?Just curious. Of course, an over-dose of benzos might be... Asked by Germaine Oxborough 6 months ago.

I understand that ethanol is toxic to the human body, in particular the liver. But benzodiazepines and alcohol have cross-tolerance, which is why benzodiazepines are prescribed to treat dangerous withdrawal. But are benzos toxic in any way themselves? Just curious. Of course, an over-dose of benzos might be considered 'toxic'; the same with alcohol, but do these molecules themselves pose any danger to the lives of cells in the human body? Answered by Genie Veld 6 months ago.

If we rank potential hepatotoxicity on a scale of 1 to 10 (10 having a large risk and 1 being no risk) then alcohol would be 10 and most benzodiazepines, aside from lorazepam or oxazepam, would be a 2-3 (that is being liberal) but oxazepam and lorazepam would be a 1. Benzo's are some of the safest drugs on earth interns of anything really. A massive overdose is almost never lethal. Alprazolam (Xanax) for example is one of the more dangerous benzodiazepines but it would require several thousand milligram to kill most people. The LD50 (median lethal dose) for Librium (chlordiazepoxide) is 800 mg/kg and for Serax (oxazepam) the LD50 is greater than 5000 mg/kg. There are only a very small number of people to ever die from a benzodiazepine. In The US about 70 people die yearly from "sedative/hypnotics" I don't know the break down of specific drugs but still most are likely barbiturates. HOWEVER when benzo's are mixed with alcohol, barbiturates, or opioids in particular then the danger is much higher. The risk, for example, of death by ABUSING methadone is moderate however when a bunch of benzo's are used it become very dangerous. In France most methadone addicts die from methadone and a benzodiazepine, particularly temazepam (which ranks with alprazolam in terms of danger). Many people take benzo's for months or year or for life and basically none have toxic effets. Also any theoretical toxic effects of long term use at therapeutic doses are not really dose dependent (except potential neurotoxicity from chronic high dose benzo abuse (ie 1 gram of diazepam/day)). For example the dose range of clonazepam is typically a minimum of 0.25 mg/day and a maximum of 20 mg/day (that is the therapeutic range) and a person on 20 mg/day does not really have much more risk of any toxic effects compared to the person taking 0.25 mg. With alcohol 1 drink a day should not cause problems however 80 drinks will cause massive damage. Lorazepam and oxazepam are not at all metabolized by the liver so there is zero risk of hepatotoxicity. Typically for alcohol withdrawal Valium (diazepam), Librium, Serax, or Ativan are used. If an alcoholic has alcoholic liver disease (which includes alcoholic hepatitis and cirrosis) or even if they have significantly elevated liver enzymes they are given either lorazepam or oxazepam. For the most part there needs to already be significant damage for a benzodiazepine to have any effect. Over all alcohol out of all the drugs of abuse (heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine....) is the hardest on the body and cause the most direct physical changes and toxicity. Alcohol is also neurotoxic. Benzo's are certainly cross tolerant with alcohol as are barbiturates, chloral hydrate, "Z" drugs (zolpidem, zaleplon, zopiclone, meprobamate, ethchlorvynol, glutethimide, methaqualone, and other GABAnergic drugs. But benzodiazepines and just about all other oral drugs are not toxic. Even barbiturates which can literally cause all activity in the brain to cease (and people can come back from that) is not really toxic in a similar way like alcohol. Answered by Travis Overson 6 months ago.

Compare Benzodiazepines Answered by Quiana Vig 6 months ago.

Alcohol IS very toxic, indeed. Benzodiazepines - which largely replace barbiturates as tranquilizers are RELATIVELY safe. The "therapeutic index" is very high - meaning that it takes many times the therapeutic dose to cause toxic/lethal effects. Barbiturates - on the other hand - had a very low therapeutic index - just a couple of extra pills could kill. Therapeutic index = LD50 / ED50 (dosage amount that causes lethality in 50% of subjects divided by the dosage amount that causes therapeutic effect in subjects - animals, of course). And - NO - ethanol is directly toxic to cells but benzos are not. Answered by Marceline Solano 6 months ago.

On a rare night when you actually crawl into bed at a decent hour, you stare at the ceiling, eyes wide open, mind racing … and a good night’s sleep feels more like a distant dream with every passing second. You’re not alone. Every year, as many as 40 percent of adults have insomnia, an inability to fall or stay asleep, according to the National Sleep Foundation. About 10 to 15 percent of people suffer from chronic insomnia, finding it difficult to get enough shuteye at least a few nights a week. Answered by Rosalie Komsthoeft 6 months ago.

What are the effects of sedatives?
include examples Asked by Willene Salvas 6 months ago.

A sedative is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement. At higher doses it may result in slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. Doses of sedatives such as benzodiazepines when used as a hypnotic to induce sleep tend to be higher than those used to relieve anxiety, since low doses suffice to provide calming sedative effects. Sedatives can be abused to produce an overly-calming effect (alcohol being the classic and most common sedating drug). At high doses or when they are abused, many of these drugs can cause unconsciousness and even death. There is some overlap between the terms "sedative" and hypnotic. The term "sedative-hypnotic" has been used to describe these joint effects, or the medications causing these joint effects. MeSH (i.e., Medical Subject Headings) classifies these agents in a single category, under CNS depressants. However, advances in pharmacology have permitted more specific targeting of receptors, and greater selectivity of agents, which necessitates greater precision when describing these agents and their effects: (1) Anxiolytic refers specifically to the effect upon anxiety. (However, some benzodiazipines are sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics.) (2) Tranquilizer can refer to anxiolytics or antipsychotics. (3) Soporific and sleeping pill are near-synonyms for hypnotics. Types of sedatives: (1) Barbiturates: Amobarbital (Amytal), pentobarbital (Nembutal), secobarbital (Seconal), Phenobarbitol (Luminal). (2) Benzodiazepines ("minor tranquilizers"): Clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), estazolam (Prosom), flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), lorazepam (Ativan), midazolam (Versed), nitrazepam (Mogadon), oxazepam (Serax), triazolam (Halcion), temazepam (Restoril, Normison, Planum, Tenox, and Temaze), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), alprazolam (Xanax). (3) Herbal sedatives: ashwagandha, catnip, kava (Piper methysticum), mandrake, cannabis, valerian. (4) Solvent sedatives: chloral hydrate (Noctec), diethyl ether (Ether), ethyl alcohol (alcoholic beverage), methyl trichloride (Chloroform). (5) Nonbenzodiazepine sedatives: eszopiclone (Lunesta), zaleplon (Sonata), zolpidem (Ambien), zopiclone (Imovane, Zimovane). (6) Uncategorized Sedatives: carisoprodol (Soma), clomethiazole (clomethiazole), gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Thalidomide, ethchlorvynol (Placidyl), glutethimide (Doriden), ketamine (Ketalar, Ketaset), methaqualone (Sopor, Quaalude), methyprylon (Noludar), ramelteon (Rozerem). Answered by Erinn Gracely 6 months ago.

What Are Sedatives Answered by Krishna Barzey 6 months ago.


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