Application Information

This drug has been submitted to the FDA under the reference 016295/002.

Names and composition

"DROXIA" is the commercial name of a drug composed of HYDROXYUREA.

Forms

ApplId/ProductId Drug name Active ingredient Form Strenght
016295/002 DROXIA HYDROXYUREA CAPSULE/ORAL 200MG
016295/003 DROXIA HYDROXYUREA CAPSULE/ORAL 300MG
016295/004 DROXIA HYDROXYUREA CAPSULE/ORAL 400MG

Similar Active Ingredient

ApplId/ProductId Drug name Active ingredient Form Strenght
016295/001 HYDREA HYDROXYUREA CAPSULE/ORAL 500MG
016295/002 DROXIA HYDROXYUREA CAPSULE/ORAL 200MG
016295/003 DROXIA HYDROXYUREA CAPSULE/ORAL 300MG
016295/004 DROXIA HYDROXYUREA CAPSULE/ORAL 400MG
074476/001 HYDROXYUREA HYDROXYUREA CAPSULE/ORAL 500MG
075020/001 HYDROXYUREA HYDROXYUREA CAPSULE/ORAL 500MG
075020/002 HYDROXYUREA HYDROXYUREA CAPSULE/ORAL 250MG
075143/001 HYDROXYUREA HYDROXYUREA CAPSULE/ORAL 500MG
075143/002 HYDROXYUREA HYDROXYUREA CAPSULE/ORAL 250MG
075340/001 HYDROXYUREA HYDROXYUREA CAPSULE/ORAL 500MG
075734/001 HYDROXYUREA HYDROXYUREA TABLET/ORAL 1GM

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Answered questions

Purple pill with "ox'' on it and its round? 10 points for fastest answer!!?
my friends boyfriend has some of these pills that say ox on them and they are purple. supposedly they are just testosterone enhancers, but he has become more aggiated and agressive lately, what are these pills for and what are the side effects?? he says he wants to build muscle and they arent steriods is that true?... Asked by Janell Oxford 1 year ago.

my friends boyfriend has some of these pills that say ox on them and they are purple. supposedly they are just testosterone enhancers, but he has become more aggiated and agressive lately, what are these pills for and what are the side effects?? he says he wants to build muscle and they arent steriods is that true? thanks for any help!!! fastest answer gets 10 points! Answered by Hermelinda Hulbert 1 year ago.

WedMD is showing Droxia and Levoxyl. One is used to control sickle cell anemia, the other is used to help hypothyroidism. Answered by Keri Leighton 1 year ago.


What kinds of treatments are there for sickle cell anemia?
how do they work? what are their limitations? what kinds of treatments are there? Asked by Caitlyn Barndt 1 year ago.

1. One method for treating sickle cell anemia is to reduce the concentration of defective hemoglobin by stimulating the body to make other kinds of hemoglobin. Hydroxyurea Hydroxyurea (Droxia), a cancer medication, has been shown to reduce pain and complications in sickle cell anemia in adults. It is still being investigated for use in children, with special concern for how hydroxyurea may affect child growth and development. Butyrate, arginine Two other drugs being investigated to stimulate hemoglobin production are butyrate and arginine. Studies have shown both drugs not only increase healthy hemoglobin but reduce the symptoms of sickle cell anemia as well. 2. Since the pain of sickle cell anemia comes from blood vessels being blocked off, another method of treatment would be to get more oxygen to the painful areas. Poloxamer 188 Poloxamer 188 (Flocor), made by CytRx Corp., has been shown in studies to decrease the length of painful episodes in sickle cell anemia by improving blood flow in the tiny blood vessels around the painful area. In June 2001 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted CytRx permission to put Flocor on the fast track for development, for treatment of acute chest syndrome. 3. Sickled red blood cells could also be made less "sticky" and thus less likely to block off blood vessels. Sulphasalazine A study published in 2001 showed that the drug sulphasalazine could reduce the number of "sticky" molecules on red blood cells in sickle cell anemia. 4. The gene that causes red blood cells to sickle was identified more than 40 years ago. Researchers are looking at two methods of using that knowledge for gene therapy: take out some of the person's cells, "fix" the defective gene, and put it back in the bone marrow so that only the correct version of the gene will be made figure out how to "turn off" the defective gene and "turn on" another gene that makes healthy hemoglobin. No doubt this and other research will reduce the pain and anemia of sickle cell disease, and perhaps even provide a cure. Answered by Nathanial Stoviak 1 year ago.

Hi Maura, A very good response by WellWisher! I'd only like to add that Hydroxyurea (an old cancer chemo drug) is very effective in children, too. Unfortunately, not many specialists are utilizing it yet. It's safe, & side-effect free in low doses. I helped care for a beautiful 8yr old girl who has responded wonderfully to it. She hasn't had to be hospitalized since. Educate yourself about the disease, Maura. If you take care of yourself. You'll be able to live a perfectly normal, happy life. That is, even if a cure doesn't come sooner. Unfortunately, there is a shortage of Doctors specializing in sickle cell due to economics (here in the U.S.). I am aware of one in southern NY state. I don't know where you are. This is a perfectly treatable illness, Maura. Learning how to manage it will greatly reduce your fears. In time, it won't phase you @all. Good Luck :-). Answered by Deja Gusmar 1 year ago.

There is no cure for sickle cell anemia, and it is possible for some people to be ill enough to die from the disease (although most young people with sickle cell anemia don't die). Doctors can provide treatments that help prevent complications from the disease, though. Folic acid, a vitamin that helps the body produce new red blood cells, is often prescribed for teens with sickle cell anemia. Pain medications help relieve the symptoms of crises. And kids and teens who have sickle cell disease should take penicillin or other antibiotics to help prevent infections. Some crises can be managed at home with pain medicines, rest, and extra fluids. But if a crisis is especially intense, a teen may need to go to the hospital for intravenous (IV) fluids and stronger pain medications. People with sickle cell anemia may also use oxygen to help ease symptoms during a crisis or an episode of acute chest syndrome. Teens with sickle cell anemia may need to get transfusions of healthy red blood cells to help carry oxygen to the tissues of their bodies more effectively, and some may need many transfusions on a regular basis. Scientists are constantly researching ways to help people with sickle cell anemia. Several new treatments, such as the drug hydroxyurea, have helped reduce painful crises and episodes of acute chest syndrome in adults with the condition. These drugs have also decreased the need for hospitalization. Scientists are also testing these and other drugs to see if they work for kids and teens. In rare cases, people with severe sickle cell anemia may be given a bone marrow transplant to help them produce healthy hemoglobin and normal RBCs. Scientists are also studying gene therapy as a treatment for sickle cell anemia. One day, doctors may be able to stop the disease by changing or replacing the abnormal gene that causes it. What Can You Do to Stay Well? With the right precautions, teens with sickle cell disease can do most of the stuff other teens do. To stay as healthy as possible, take these steps: Eat a balanced, healthy diet. Take vitamins, including folic acid supplements, as prescribed. Drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. Avoid extreme cold or heat. Exercise regularly, but in moderation. Exercise is important for staying healthy, but overdoing it can trigger a crisis in some people, particularly if they become dehydrated, overheated, or exhausted. Get plenty of rest. Avoid alcohol, drugs, and smoking, which can aggravate sickle cell disease and its symptoms. Some people with sickle cell disease are prone to lung problems, so smoking is particularly risky and must be avoided. Avoid places low in oxygen. (For example, it's not a good idea to go hiking at high altitudes or spend lots of time swimming under water.) Prevent serious infections by contacting your doctor as soon as illness symptoms start. Be sure to get any immunizations (such as pneumonia and flu vaccines) that the doctor recommends, and always call your doctor if you have a high fever (over 101° Fahrenheit). Learn as much as you can about the disease and see your doctor regularly to help prevent complications. Teens with sickle cell disease may need to put some limits on their lives, but with the help of doctors, friends, and family, they can manage the condition and live their lives to the fullest. Answered by Raymond Zoutte 1 year ago.


Alternative and Complimentry treatments for Sicke Cell Anemia?
What do you guys personally think about alternative and complimentry treatments for Sickle Cell Anemia? Asked by Diego Soltani 1 year ago.

Promising therapies being investigated The following are some of the treatments for sickle cell anemia being investigated through research. 1. One method for treating sickle cell anemia is to reduce the concentration of defective hemoglobin by stimulating the body to make other kinds of hemoglobin. Hydroxyurea Hydroxyurea (Droxia), a cancer medication, has been shown to reduce pain and complications in sickle cell anemia in adults. It is still being investigated for use in children, with special concern for how hydroxyurea may affect child growth and development. [Wang, W. C., Helms, R. W., Lynn, H. S., et al. (2002) Effect of hydroxyurea on growth in children with sickle cell anemia: Results of the HUG-KIDS study. Journal of Pediatrics 140(2), pp 225-229] Butyrate, arginine Two other drugs being investigated to stimulate hemoglobin production are butyrate and arginine. Studies have shown both drugs not only increase healthy hemoglobin but reduce the symptoms of sickle cell anemia as well. [Armandola, E. A. (2002). Management of sickle cell anemia: New approaches. 7th Congress of the European Hematology Association.] 2. Since the pain of sickle cell anemia comes from blood vessels being blocked off, another method of treatment would be to get more oxygen to the painful areas. Poloxamer 188 Poloxamer 188 (Flocor), made by CytRx Corp., has been shown in studies to decrease the length of painful episodes in sickle cell anemia by improving blood flow in the tiny blood vessels around the painful area. In June 2001 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted CytRx permission to put Flocor on the fast track for development, for treatment of acute chest syndrome. [Marlowe, K. F., & Chicella, M. F. (2002). Treatment of sickle cell pain. Pharmacotherapy 22(4), pp. 484-491.] 3. Sickled red blood cells could also be made less "sticky" and thus less likely to block off blood vessels. Sulphasalazine A study published in 2001 showed that the drug sulphasalazine could reduce the number of "sticky" molecules on red blood cells in sickle cell anemia. [Solovey, A. A., Solovey, A. N., Harkness, J., & Hebbel, R. P. (2001). Modulation of endothelial cell activation in sickle cell disease: A pilot study. Blood 97, pp. 1937-1941.] 4. The gene that causes red blood cells to sickle was identified more than 40 years ago. Researchers are looking at two methods of using that knowledge for gene therapy: take out some of the person's cells, "fix" the defective gene, and put it back in the bone marrow so that only the correct version of the gene will be made figure out how to "turn off" the defective gene and "turn on" another gene that makes healthy hemoglobin No doubt this and other research will reduce the pain and anemia of sickle cell disease, and perhaps even provide a cure. Answered by Ariana Loukanis 1 year ago.

That's Sickle Cell Anemia. Other than that, I've no idea what you are talking about. We need more details to respond. Answered by Kyle Muwwakkil 1 year ago.


What is the major of chemotherapy agents in anti-cancer drugs ?
Asked by Lourie Stash 1 year ago.

There are many different chemotherapy agents. Different drugs work for different cancers, and they are frequently used in combination. You need to be more specific. Here is a list of chemo drugs: 13-cis-Retinoic Acid 2-CdA 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine 5-Fluorouracil 5-FU 6-Mercaptopurine 6-MP 6-TG 6-Thioguanine Abraxane Accutane ® Actinomycin-D Adriamycin ® Adrucil ® Agrylin ® Ala-Cort ® Aldesleukin Alemtuzumab ALIMTA Alitretinoin Alkaban-AQ ® Alkeran ® All-transretinoic acid Alpha interferon Altretamine Amethopterin Amifostine Aminoglutethimide Anagrelide Anandron ® Anastrozole Arabinosylcytosine Ara-C Aranesp ® Aredia ® Arimidex ® Aromasin ® Arranon ® Arsenic trioxide Asparaginase ATRA Avastin ® Azacitidine BCG BCNU Bevacizumab Bexarotene BEXXAR ® Bicalutamide BiCNU Blenoxane ® Bleomycin Bortezomib Busulfan Busulfex ® C225 Calcium Leucovorin Campath ® Camptosar ® Camptothecin-11 Capecitabine Carac ™ Carboplatin Carmustine Carmustine wafer Casodex ® CC-5013 CCNU CDDP CeeNU Cerubidine ® Cetuximab Chlorambucil Cisplatin Citrovorum Factor Cladribine Cortisone Cosmegen ® CPT-11 Cyclophosphamide Cytadren ® Cytarabine Cytarabine liposomal Cytosar-U ® Cytoxan ® Dacarbazine Dacogen Dactinomycin Darbepoetin alfa Daunomycin Daunorubicin Daunorubicin hydrochloride Daunorubicin liposomal DaunoXome ® Decadron Decitabine Delta-Cortef ® Deltasone ® Denileukin diftitox DepoCyt ™ Dexamethasone Dexamethasone acetate Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Dexasone Dexrazoxane DHAD DIC Diodex Docetaxel Doxil ® Doxorubicin Doxorubicin liposomal Droxia ™ DTIC DTIC-Dome ® Duralone ® Efudex ® Eligard ™ Ellence ™ Eloxatin ™ Elspar ® Emcyt ® Epirubicin Epoetin alfa Erbitux ™ Erlotinib Erwinia L-asparaginase Estramustine Ethyol Etopophos ® Etoposide Etoposide Phosphate Eulexin ® Evista ® Exemestane Fareston ® Faslodex ® Femara ® Filgrastim Floxuridine Fludara ® Fludarabine Fluoroplex ® Fluorouracil Fluorouracil (cream) Fluoxymesterone Flutamide Folinic Acid FUDR ® Fulvestrant G-CSF Gefitinib Gemcitabine Gemtuzumab ozogamicin Gemzar ® GleevecTM Gliadel wafer (t) GM-CSF Goserelin granulocyte - colony stimulating factor (t) Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (o) Halotestin (t) Herceptin (t) Hexadrol (t) Hexalen (t) Hexamethylmelamine (t) HMM (t) Hycamtin (t) Hydrea (t) Hydrocort Acetate (t) Hydrocortisone Hydrocortisone sodium phosphate Hydrocortisone sodium succinate Hydrocortone phosphate (t) Hydroxyurea Ibritumomab Ibritumomab Tiuxetan Idamycin ® Idarubicin Ifex ® IFN-alpha Ifosfamide IL-11 IL-2 Imatinib mesylate Imidazole Carboxamide Interferon alfa Interferon Alfa-2b (PEG conjugate) (o) Interleukin - 2 (t) Interleukin-11 (o) Intron A® (interferon alfa-2b) Iressa ® Irinotecan Isotretinoin Kidrolase (t) Lanacort (t) L-asparaginase (t) LCR (o) Lenalidomide Letrozole Leucovorin Leukeran (t) Leukine (t) Leuprolide Leurocristine (o) Leustatin (t) Liposomal Ara-C (t) Liquid Pred (t) Lomustine L-PAM (o) L-Sarcolysin (o) Lupron (t) Lupron Depot ® Matulane (t) Maxidex (t) Mechlorethamine Mechlorethamine Hydrochloride Medralone (t) Medrol ® Megace (t) Megestrol Megestrol Acetate (o) Melphalan Mercaptopurine Mesna Mesnex (t) Methotrexate Methotrexate Sodium (o) Methylprednisolone Meticorten (t) Mitomycin Mitomycin-C (o) Mitoxantrone M-Prednisol (t) MTC (o) MTX (o) Mustargen (t) Mustine Mutamycin (t) Myleran (t) Mylocel (t) Mylotarg (t) Navelbine ® Nelarabine Neosar (t) Neulasta (t) Neumega (t) Neupogen ® Nexavar ® Nilandron (t) Nilutamide Nipent ® Nitrogen Mustard (o) Novaldex (t) Novantrone (t) Octreotide Octreotide acetate (o) Oncospar (t) Oncovin (t) Ontak (t) Onxal (t) Oprevelkin Orapred (t) Orasone (t) Oxaliplatin Paclitaxel Paclitaxel Protein-bound Pamidronate Panretin (t) Paraplatin (t) Pediapred (t) PEG Interferon Pegaspargase Pegfilgrastim PEG-INTRON (t) PEG-L-asparaginase PEMETREXED Pentostatin Phenylalanine Mustard (o) Platinol (t) Platinol-AQ (t) Prednisolone Prednisone Prelone (t) Procarbazine PROCRIT ® Proleukin (t) Prolifeprospan 20 with Carmustine implant (t) Purinethol ® Raloxifene Revlimid ® Rheumatrex (t) Rituxan (t) Rituximab Roferon-A® (interferon alfa-2a) Rubex (t) Rubidomycin hydrochloride (t) Sandostatin ® Sandostatin LAR (t) Sargramostim Solu-Cortef (t) Solu-Medrol (t) Sorafenib STI-571 Streptozocin SU11248 Sunitinib Sutent ® Tamoxifen Tarceva ® Targretin (t) Taxol ® Taxotere ® Temodar ® Temozolomide Teniposide TESPA (o) Thalidomide Thalomid ® TheraCys (t) Thioguanine Thioguanine Tabloid ® Thiophosphoamide (o) Thioplex (t) Thiotepa TICE ® Toposar (t) Topotecan Toremifene Tositumomab Trastuzumab Tretinoin Trexall (t) Trisenox (t) TSPA (o) VCR (o) Velban (t) Velcade ® VePesid (t) Vesanoid (t) Viadur (t) Vidaza (t) Vinblastine Vinblastine Sulfate (o) Vincasar Pfs (t) Vincristine Vinorelbine Vinorelbine tartrate (o) VLB (o) VM-26 (o) VP-16 (t) Vumon (t) Xeloda ® Zanosar (t) Zevalin TM Zinecard (t) Zoladex ® Zoledronic acid Zometa ® See? There's a lot of them. Answered by Dustin Denlinger 1 year ago.

antineoplastics, monoclonal antibodies, Answered by Juana Rafus 1 year ago.

Please see the webpages for more details on Chemotherapy. Answered by Hans Caserta 1 year ago.


What does it mean if someone has a higher than average level of platelets in their blood?
What are the causes and what does it mean. Someone has mentioned Leukemia to me and now I'm panicking a little. The doctor has said to go back in 6 weeks for another blood test. Asked by Katie Arca 1 year ago.

Thrombocythemia (high platelet count) Thrombocythemia refers to a high platelet count. Platelets (thrombocytes) play an important role in blood clotting. The term "essential thrombocythemia" means that the cause of a high platelet count can't be determined. A normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. In very large numbers — exceeding 600,000 platelets per microliter — platelets may cause clotting in blood vessels and abnormal bleeding. A doctor may diagnose essential thrombocythemia by blood tests that show a sustained increase in platelets not due to another condition, such as polycythemia vera or chronic myelogenous leukemia. In some cases, thrombocythemia is due to a specific genetic mutation. Some people with thrombocythemia have no signs or symptoms. Others may experience bleeding from the nose or gums, blood clots, heart attack or stroke. When needed, treatment may include: * Low-dose aspirin to reduce clotting risk * Medications such as interferon or hydroxyurea (Hydrea, Droxia) to lower platelet counts in those individuals who are older than age 60, are at high risk of heart disease or have a history of abnormal bleeding or blood clots Essential thrombocythemia is a stem cell disease; "essential" means that the cause is unknown. Blood cells, including red blood cells (which carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body), white blood cells (which fight infections) and platelets (which form blood clots) are produced from stem cells in the bone marrow. The stem cells grow and divide into intermediate cells and finally into mature cells in the blood. A problem with the stem cell can lead to problems with all other cells. ET is a stem cell disease that leads to an overproduction of platelets (thrombocytes) without other secondary causes, sometimes with an accompanying increase in white blood cells. Blood platelets help prevent and control bleeding resulting from injury to blood vessels. The term thrombocythemia refers to an unusually high platelet count. A normal count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter (mL) of blood. When the platelet count exceeds 600,000 platelets per mL, doctors call this essential thrombocythemia. Most young people with essential thrombocythemia have no signs or symptoms. ET is classified as a chronic myeloproliferative disorder (CMPD). The CMPDs also include polycythemia vera, agnogenic myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis, and chronic myelogenous leukemia. Answered by Jerilyn Bindas 1 year ago.

For decades the white blood count and differential were done manually, with the tech staining a blood smear and physically counting the cells. The first automatic counters only counted the total WBC count and the differential was still performed manually. Platelets were estimated as low, normal or increased. If you wanted more info, you ordered a special platelet count. Somewhere around 1980 or thereabouts automated counters came along that could give you an accurate total WBC plus a differential, plus platelets. Surprisingly it took a fairly long time for some of us to realize that platelets were "acute phase reactants" that rose and fell with fever and stress. So while yes, there are disorders associated with increased platelets (see a previous response), it can also be just a reaction to stress. Answered by Ahmed Stadick 1 year ago.

It's unlikely to be leukemia as it tends to lower the platelet count. Answered by Olinda Widen 1 year ago.


Sickle Cell Anemia................?
Does anybody have any information on sickle cell anemia like treatments, how it affects the person, support groups. Its for this big project im doin for biology worth about 50% of our term grade. Please help and also list resources. Asked by Herta Schilling 1 year ago.

Treatments and drugs Bone marrow transplant offers the only potential cure for sickle cell anemia. But very few people have a suitable donor for transplant. As a result, treatment for sickle cell anemia is usually aimed at avoiding crises, relieving symptoms and preventing complications. If you have sickle cell anemia, you'll need to make regular visits to your doctor to check your red blood cell count and monitor your health. You may also require treatment from specialists at a hospital or sickle cell anemia clinic. Treatments may include medications to reduce pain and prevent complications, blood transfusions and supplemental oxygen, as well as bone marrow transplant. Medications Medications used to treat sickle cell anemia include: Antibiotics. Children with sickle cell anemia usually begin taking the antibiotic penicillin when they're about 2 months of age and continue until they're 5 years old. Doing so helps prevent infections, such as pneumonia, which can be life-threatening to an infant or child with sickle cell anemia. Antibiotics may also help adults with sickle cell anemia fight certain infections. Pain-relieving medications. To relieve pain during a sickle crisis, your doctor may advise over-the-counter pain relievers and application of heat to the affected area. You may also need stronger prescription painkillers. Hydroxyurea (Droxia, Hydrea). This prescription drug, normally used to treat cancer, may be helpful for adults with severe disease. When taken daily, it reduces the frequency of painful crises and may reduce the need for blood transfusions. It seems to work by stimulating production of fetal hemoglobin — a type of hemoglobin found in newborns that helps prevent the formation of sickle cells. There is some concern about the possibility that long-term use of this drug may cause tumors or leukemia in certain people. Your doctor can help you determine if this drug may be beneficial for you. Blood transfusions In a red blood cell transfusion, red blood cells are removed from a supply of donated blood. These donated cells are then given intravenously to a person with sickle cell anemia. Blood transfusions increase the number of normal red blood cells in circulation, helping to relieve anemia. In children with sickle cell anemia at high risk of stroke, regular blood transfusions can decrease their risk of stroke. Blood transfusions carry some risk. Blood contains iron. Regular blood transfusions cause an excess amount of iron to build up in your body. Because excess iron can damage your heart, liver and other organs, people who undergo regular transfusions must often receive treatment to reduce iron levels. In 2005, the Food and Drug Administration approved deferasirox (Exjade), the first oral medication that can reduce excess iron levels, for use in people older than the age of 2. Supplemental oxygen Breathing supplemental oxygen through a breathing mask adds oxygen to your blood and helps you breathe easier. It may be helpful if you have acute chest syndrome or a sickle cell crisis. Bone marrow transplant This procedure allows people with sickle cell anemia to replace their bone marrow — and its sickle-shaped red blood cells — with healthy bone marrow from a donor who doesn't have the disease. It can be a cure, but the procedure is risky, and it's difficult to find suitable donors. Researchers are still studying bone marrow transplants for people with sickle cell anemia. Currently, the procedure is recommended only for people who have significant symptoms and problems from sickle cell anemia. In a bone marrow transplant, your bone marrow is first destroyed using chemotherapy or radiation. A matched donor's healthy bone marrow is removed using a minor surgical technique. You then receive a transfusion of that healthy marrow, and the healthy marrow may start producing normal blood cells. Sometimes, however, the transplant doesn't work or the recipient's body rejects the new marrow. The procedure requires a lengthy hospital stay. After the transplant, you'll need drugs to help prevent rejection of the donated marrow. Treating complications Doctors treat most complications of sickle cell anemia as they occur. Treatment may include antibiotics, blood transfusions, pain-relieving medicines, other medications and possibly surgery, such as to correct vision problems or to remove a damaged spleen. Experimental treatments Scientists continue to gain new insights into the symptoms and causes of sickle cell anemia. Some possible new treatments researchers are studying include: Gene therapy. Because sickle cell anemia is caused by a defective gene, researchers are exploring whether correcting this gene and inserting it into the bone marrow of people with sickle cell anemia will result in the production of normal hemoglobin. Scientists are also exploring the possibility of turning off the defective gene while reactivating another gene responsible for the Answered by Russell Magedanz 1 year ago.


What does anemia means?
sikle-cell anemia Asked by Neil Krivanek 1 year ago.

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder almost completely within the African/African American population, or in other words, black folks. The disease causes the red blood cells to be shaped some what "U" shaped or "Sickle" shaped. Red blood cells should have a doughnut shape. The disease causes two main problems for the person. First off they person's red blood cells have trouble binding O2 molecules, which leads to the person having trouble getting Oxygen to it's cells. Secondly the disease will cause the person to have poor circulation due to the oddly shaped cells having trouble entering and moving through the small capillary vessels. Due to this the person can have HORRIBLE pain especially in there chest and joints. It is a really bad disease, but luckily there are some medications available to treat the effects. So to summarize here It is called "sickle cell" because of the odd "sickle" shaped red blood cells the disease causes. Anemia means that a person has not enough iron in their body. Iron is the main component of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the biochemical that is on the surface of red blood cells that enables it to carry oxygen. Hope this answers your question! Answered by Wilfred Barsamian 1 year ago.

interior the scientific accepted term, anemia ability that the blood isn't able to hold adequate oxygen for the physique's cells. there are various categories of anemia and in basic terms your physician can prognosis which style of anemia you have and prescribe an suited therapy. Answered by Yolando Lesso 1 year ago.

dark skin people get it . somme thing with there cells. Answered by Kittie Teitsworth 1 year ago.


I want to know about recent treatment for sickle-cell anemia diseas?
Need information concerning different treatments available for sickle-cell anemia. Asked by Aundrea Cianci 1 year ago.

Health maintenance for patients with sickle cell disease starts with early diagnosis, preferably in the newborn period and includes penicillin prophylaxis, vaccination against pneumococcus bacteria and folic acid supplementation. Treatment of complications often includes antibiotics, pain management, intravenous fluids, blood transfusion and surgery all backed by psychosocial support. Like all patients with chronic disease patients are best managed in a comprehensive multi-disciplinary program of care. Blood transfusions help benefit sickle cell disease patients by reducing recurrent pain crises, risk of stroke and other complications. Because red blood cells contain iron, and there is no natural way for the body to eliminate it, patients who receive repeated blood transfusions can accumulate iron in the body until it reaches toxic levels. It is important to remove excess iron from the body, because it can gather in the heart, liver, and other organs and may lead to organ damage. Treatments are available to eliminate iron overload. In search for a substance that can prevent red blood cells from sickling without causing harm to other parts of the body, Hydroxyurea was found to reduce the frequency of severe pain, acute chest syndrome and the need for blood transfusions in adult patients with sickle cell disease. Droxia, the prescription form of hydroxyurea, was approved by the FDA in 1998 and is now available for adult patients with sickle cell anemia. Studies will now be conducted to determine the proper dosage for children. Answered by Ranee Vache 1 year ago.

Definite treatment--- Bone marrow transplant. Supportive----- Hydroxyurea increases the amount of fetal hemoglobin and reduces sickling. Folic acid should be given and blood transfusions when necessary. During painful crises, pain- killers are given. Answered by Corie Vassil 1 year ago.

why stem cell match are so difficult for sickle cell anemia clients Answered by Lyla Overholser 1 year ago.


Purple pill with "ox'' on it and its round? 10 points for fastest answer!!?
my friends boyfriend has some of these pills that say ox on them and they are purple. supposedly they are just testosterone enhancers, but he has become more aggiated and agressive lately, what are these pills for and what are the side effects?? he says he wants to build muscle and they arent steriods is that true?... Asked by Brian Pulfrey 1 year ago.

my friends boyfriend has some of these pills that say ox on them and they are purple. supposedly they are just testosterone enhancers, but he has become more aggiated and agressive lately, what are these pills for and what are the side effects?? he says he wants to build muscle and they arent steriods is that true? thanks for any help!!! fastest answer gets 10 points! Answered by Lekisha Munley 1 year ago.

WedMD is showing Droxia and Levoxyl. One is used to control sickle cell anemia, the other is used to help hypothyroidism. Answered by Linnie Wedlow 1 year ago.


What kinds of treatments are there for sickle cell anemia?
how do they work? what are their limitations? what kinds of treatments are there? Asked by Wilson Weaving 1 year ago.

1. One method for treating sickle cell anemia is to reduce the concentration of defective hemoglobin by stimulating the body to make other kinds of hemoglobin. Hydroxyurea Hydroxyurea (Droxia), a cancer medication, has been shown to reduce pain and complications in sickle cell anemia in adults. It is still being investigated for use in children, with special concern for how hydroxyurea may affect child growth and development. Butyrate, arginine Two other drugs being investigated to stimulate hemoglobin production are butyrate and arginine. Studies have shown both drugs not only increase healthy hemoglobin but reduce the symptoms of sickle cell anemia as well. 2. Since the pain of sickle cell anemia comes from blood vessels being blocked off, another method of treatment would be to get more oxygen to the painful areas. Poloxamer 188 Poloxamer 188 (Flocor), made by CytRx Corp., has been shown in studies to decrease the length of painful episodes in sickle cell anemia by improving blood flow in the tiny blood vessels around the painful area. In June 2001 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted CytRx permission to put Flocor on the fast track for development, for treatment of acute chest syndrome. 3. Sickled red blood cells could also be made less "sticky" and thus less likely to block off blood vessels. Sulphasalazine A study published in 2001 showed that the drug sulphasalazine could reduce the number of "sticky" molecules on red blood cells in sickle cell anemia. 4. The gene that causes red blood cells to sickle was identified more than 40 years ago. Researchers are looking at two methods of using that knowledge for gene therapy: take out some of the person's cells, "fix" the defective gene, and put it back in the bone marrow so that only the correct version of the gene will be made figure out how to "turn off" the defective gene and "turn on" another gene that makes healthy hemoglobin. No doubt this and other research will reduce the pain and anemia of sickle cell disease, and perhaps even provide a cure. Answered by Anabel Jorres 1 year ago.

Hi Maura, A very good response by WellWisher! I'd only like to add that Hydroxyurea (an old cancer chemo drug) is very effective in children, too. Unfortunately, not many specialists are utilizing it yet. It's safe, & side-effect free in low doses. I helped care for a beautiful 8yr old girl who has responded wonderfully to it. She hasn't had to be hospitalized since. Educate yourself about the disease, Maura. If you take care of yourself. You'll be able to live a perfectly normal, happy life. That is, even if a cure doesn't come sooner. Unfortunately, there is a shortage of Doctors specializing in sickle cell due to economics (here in the U.S.). I am aware of one in southern NY state. I don't know where you are. This is a perfectly treatable illness, Maura. Learning how to manage it will greatly reduce your fears. In time, it won't phase you @all. Good Luck :-). Answered by Paul Coughlin 1 year ago.

There is no cure for sickle cell anemia, and it is possible for some people to be ill enough to die from the disease (although most young people with sickle cell anemia don't die). Doctors can provide treatments that help prevent complications from the disease, though. Folic acid, a vitamin that helps the body produce new red blood cells, is often prescribed for teens with sickle cell anemia. Pain medications help relieve the symptoms of crises. And kids and teens who have sickle cell disease should take penicillin or other antibiotics to help prevent infections. Some crises can be managed at home with pain medicines, rest, and extra fluids. But if a crisis is especially intense, a teen may need to go to the hospital for intravenous (IV) fluids and stronger pain medications. People with sickle cell anemia may also use oxygen to help ease symptoms during a crisis or an episode of acute chest syndrome. Teens with sickle cell anemia may need to get transfusions of healthy red blood cells to help carry oxygen to the tissues of their bodies more effectively, and some may need many transfusions on a regular basis. Scientists are constantly researching ways to help people with sickle cell anemia. Several new treatments, such as the drug hydroxyurea, have helped reduce painful crises and episodes of acute chest syndrome in adults with the condition. These drugs have also decreased the need for hospitalization. Scientists are also testing these and other drugs to see if they work for kids and teens. In rare cases, people with severe sickle cell anemia may be given a bone marrow transplant to help them produce healthy hemoglobin and normal RBCs. Scientists are also studying gene therapy as a treatment for sickle cell anemia. One day, doctors may be able to stop the disease by changing or replacing the abnormal gene that causes it. What Can You Do to Stay Well? With the right precautions, teens with sickle cell disease can do most of the stuff other teens do. To stay as healthy as possible, take these steps: Eat a balanced, healthy diet. Take vitamins, including folic acid supplements, as prescribed. Drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. Avoid extreme cold or heat. Exercise regularly, but in moderation. Exercise is important for staying healthy, but overdoing it can trigger a crisis in some people, particularly if they become dehydrated, overheated, or exhausted. Get plenty of rest. Avoid alcohol, drugs, and smoking, which can aggravate sickle cell disease and its symptoms. Some people with sickle cell disease are prone to lung problems, so smoking is particularly risky and must be avoided. Avoid places low in oxygen. (For example, it's not a good idea to go hiking at high altitudes or spend lots of time swimming under water.) Prevent serious infections by contacting your doctor as soon as illness symptoms start. Be sure to get any immunizations (such as pneumonia and flu vaccines) that the doctor recommends, and always call your doctor if you have a high fever (over 101° Fahrenheit). Learn as much as you can about the disease and see your doctor regularly to help prevent complications. Teens with sickle cell disease may need to put some limits on their lives, but with the help of doctors, friends, and family, they can manage the condition and live their lives to the fullest. Answered by Stacey Leahy 1 year ago.


Alternative and Complimentry treatments for Sicke Cell Anemia?
What do you guys personally think about alternative and complimentry treatments for Sickle Cell Anemia? Asked by Bridgett Csubak 1 year ago.

Promising therapies being investigated The following are some of the treatments for sickle cell anemia being investigated through research. 1. One method for treating sickle cell anemia is to reduce the concentration of defective hemoglobin by stimulating the body to make other kinds of hemoglobin. Hydroxyurea Hydroxyurea (Droxia), a cancer medication, has been shown to reduce pain and complications in sickle cell anemia in adults. It is still being investigated for use in children, with special concern for how hydroxyurea may affect child growth and development. [Wang, W. C., Helms, R. W., Lynn, H. S., et al. (2002) Effect of hydroxyurea on growth in children with sickle cell anemia: Results of the HUG-KIDS study. Journal of Pediatrics 140(2), pp 225-229] Butyrate, arginine Two other drugs being investigated to stimulate hemoglobin production are butyrate and arginine. Studies have shown both drugs not only increase healthy hemoglobin but reduce the symptoms of sickle cell anemia as well. [Armandola, E. A. (2002). Management of sickle cell anemia: New approaches. 7th Congress of the European Hematology Association.] 2. Since the pain of sickle cell anemia comes from blood vessels being blocked off, another method of treatment would be to get more oxygen to the painful areas. Poloxamer 188 Poloxamer 188 (Flocor), made by CytRx Corp., has been shown in studies to decrease the length of painful episodes in sickle cell anemia by improving blood flow in the tiny blood vessels around the painful area. In June 2001 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted CytRx permission to put Flocor on the fast track for development, for treatment of acute chest syndrome. [Marlowe, K. F., & Chicella, M. F. (2002). Treatment of sickle cell pain. Pharmacotherapy 22(4), pp. 484-491.] 3. Sickled red blood cells could also be made less "sticky" and thus less likely to block off blood vessels. Sulphasalazine A study published in 2001 showed that the drug sulphasalazine could reduce the number of "sticky" molecules on red blood cells in sickle cell anemia. [Solovey, A. A., Solovey, A. N., Harkness, J., & Hebbel, R. P. (2001). Modulation of endothelial cell activation in sickle cell disease: A pilot study. Blood 97, pp. 1937-1941.] 4. The gene that causes red blood cells to sickle was identified more than 40 years ago. Researchers are looking at two methods of using that knowledge for gene therapy: take out some of the person's cells, "fix" the defective gene, and put it back in the bone marrow so that only the correct version of the gene will be made figure out how to "turn off" the defective gene and "turn on" another gene that makes healthy hemoglobin No doubt this and other research will reduce the pain and anemia of sickle cell disease, and perhaps even provide a cure. Answered by Yesenia Rothfeld 1 year ago.

That's Sickle Cell Anemia. Other than that, I've no idea what you are talking about. We need more details to respond. Answered by Noemi Alkema 1 year ago.


What is the major of chemotherapy agents in anti-cancer drugs ?
Asked by Georgette Koestner 1 year ago.

There are many different chemotherapy agents. Different drugs work for different cancers, and they are frequently used in combination. You need to be more specific. Here is a list of chemo drugs: 13-cis-Retinoic Acid 2-CdA 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine 5-Fluorouracil 5-FU 6-Mercaptopurine 6-MP 6-TG 6-Thioguanine Abraxane Accutane ® Actinomycin-D Adriamycin ® Adrucil ® Agrylin ® Ala-Cort ® Aldesleukin Alemtuzumab ALIMTA Alitretinoin Alkaban-AQ ® Alkeran ® All-transretinoic acid Alpha interferon Altretamine Amethopterin Amifostine Aminoglutethimide Anagrelide Anandron ® Anastrozole Arabinosylcytosine Ara-C Aranesp ® Aredia ® Arimidex ® Aromasin ® Arranon ® Arsenic trioxide Asparaginase ATRA Avastin ® Azacitidine BCG BCNU Bevacizumab Bexarotene BEXXAR ® Bicalutamide BiCNU Blenoxane ® Bleomycin Bortezomib Busulfan Busulfex ® C225 Calcium Leucovorin Campath ® Camptosar ® Camptothecin-11 Capecitabine Carac ™ Carboplatin Carmustine Carmustine wafer Casodex ® CC-5013 CCNU CDDP CeeNU Cerubidine ® Cetuximab Chlorambucil Cisplatin Citrovorum Factor Cladribine Cortisone Cosmegen ® CPT-11 Cyclophosphamide Cytadren ® Cytarabine Cytarabine liposomal Cytosar-U ® Cytoxan ® Dacarbazine Dacogen Dactinomycin Darbepoetin alfa Daunomycin Daunorubicin Daunorubicin hydrochloride Daunorubicin liposomal DaunoXome ® Decadron Decitabine Delta-Cortef ® Deltasone ® Denileukin diftitox DepoCyt ™ Dexamethasone Dexamethasone acetate Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Dexasone Dexrazoxane DHAD DIC Diodex Docetaxel Doxil ® Doxorubicin Doxorubicin liposomal Droxia ™ DTIC DTIC-Dome ® Duralone ® Efudex ® Eligard ™ Ellence ™ Eloxatin ™ Elspar ® Emcyt ® Epirubicin Epoetin alfa Erbitux ™ Erlotinib Erwinia L-asparaginase Estramustine Ethyol Etopophos ® Etoposide Etoposide Phosphate Eulexin ® Evista ® Exemestane Fareston ® Faslodex ® Femara ® Filgrastim Floxuridine Fludara ® Fludarabine Fluoroplex ® Fluorouracil Fluorouracil (cream) Fluoxymesterone Flutamide Folinic Acid FUDR ® Fulvestrant G-CSF Gefitinib Gemcitabine Gemtuzumab ozogamicin Gemzar ® GleevecTM Gliadel wafer (t) GM-CSF Goserelin granulocyte - colony stimulating factor (t) Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (o) Halotestin (t) Herceptin (t) Hexadrol (t) Hexalen (t) Hexamethylmelamine (t) HMM (t) Hycamtin (t) Hydrea (t) Hydrocort Acetate (t) Hydrocortisone Hydrocortisone sodium phosphate Hydrocortisone sodium succinate Hydrocortone phosphate (t) Hydroxyurea Ibritumomab Ibritumomab Tiuxetan Idamycin ® Idarubicin Ifex ® IFN-alpha Ifosfamide IL-11 IL-2 Imatinib mesylate Imidazole Carboxamide Interferon alfa Interferon Alfa-2b (PEG conjugate) (o) Interleukin - 2 (t) Interleukin-11 (o) Intron A® (interferon alfa-2b) Iressa ® Irinotecan Isotretinoin Kidrolase (t) Lanacort (t) L-asparaginase (t) LCR (o) Lenalidomide Letrozole Leucovorin Leukeran (t) Leukine (t) Leuprolide Leurocristine (o) Leustatin (t) Liposomal Ara-C (t) Liquid Pred (t) Lomustine L-PAM (o) L-Sarcolysin (o) Lupron (t) Lupron Depot ® Matulane (t) Maxidex (t) Mechlorethamine Mechlorethamine Hydrochloride Medralone (t) Medrol ® Megace (t) Megestrol Megestrol Acetate (o) Melphalan Mercaptopurine Mesna Mesnex (t) Methotrexate Methotrexate Sodium (o) Methylprednisolone Meticorten (t) Mitomycin Mitomycin-C (o) Mitoxantrone M-Prednisol (t) MTC (o) MTX (o) Mustargen (t) Mustine Mutamycin (t) Myleran (t) Mylocel (t) Mylotarg (t) Navelbine ® Nelarabine Neosar (t) Neulasta (t) Neumega (t) Neupogen ® Nexavar ® Nilandron (t) Nilutamide Nipent ® Nitrogen Mustard (o) Novaldex (t) Novantrone (t) Octreotide Octreotide acetate (o) Oncospar (t) Oncovin (t) Ontak (t) Onxal (t) Oprevelkin Orapred (t) Orasone (t) Oxaliplatin Paclitaxel Paclitaxel Protein-bound Pamidronate Panretin (t) Paraplatin (t) Pediapred (t) PEG Interferon Pegaspargase Pegfilgrastim PEG-INTRON (t) PEG-L-asparaginase PEMETREXED Pentostatin Phenylalanine Mustard (o) Platinol (t) Platinol-AQ (t) Prednisolone Prednisone Prelone (t) Procarbazine PROCRIT ® Proleukin (t) Prolifeprospan 20 with Carmustine implant (t) Purinethol ® Raloxifene Revlimid ® Rheumatrex (t) Rituxan (t) Rituximab Roferon-A® (interferon alfa-2a) Rubex (t) Rubidomycin hydrochloride (t) Sandostatin ® Sandostatin LAR (t) Sargramostim Solu-Cortef (t) Solu-Medrol (t) Sorafenib STI-571 Streptozocin SU11248 Sunitinib Sutent ® Tamoxifen Tarceva ® Targretin (t) Taxol ® Taxotere ® Temodar ® Temozolomide Teniposide TESPA (o) Thalidomide Thalomid ® TheraCys (t) Thioguanine Thioguanine Tabloid ® Thiophosphoamide (o) Thioplex (t) Thiotepa TICE ® Toposar (t) Topotecan Toremifene Tositumomab Trastuzumab Tretinoin Trexall (t) Trisenox (t) TSPA (o) VCR (o) Velban (t) Velcade ® VePesid (t) Vesanoid (t) Viadur (t) Vidaza (t) Vinblastine Vinblastine Sulfate (o) Vincasar Pfs (t) Vincristine Vinorelbine Vinorelbine tartrate (o) VLB (o) VM-26 (o) VP-16 (t) Vumon (t) Xeloda ® Zanosar (t) Zevalin TM Zinecard (t) Zoladex ® Zoledronic acid Zometa ® See? There's a lot of them. Answered by Twyla Rivenburgh 1 year ago.

antineoplastics, monoclonal antibodies, Answered by Emmanuel Gieseke 1 year ago.

Please see the webpages for more details on Chemotherapy. Answered by Riley Jobin 1 year ago.


What does it mean if someone has a higher than average level of platelets in their blood?
What are the causes and what does it mean. Someone has mentioned Leukemia to me and now I'm panicking a little. The doctor has said to go back in 6 weeks for another blood test. Asked by Michal Benzi 1 year ago.

Thrombocythemia (high platelet count) Thrombocythemia refers to a high platelet count. Platelets (thrombocytes) play an important role in blood clotting. The term "essential thrombocythemia" means that the cause of a high platelet count can't be determined. A normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. In very large numbers — exceeding 600,000 platelets per microliter — platelets may cause clotting in blood vessels and abnormal bleeding. A doctor may diagnose essential thrombocythemia by blood tests that show a sustained increase in platelets not due to another condition, such as polycythemia vera or chronic myelogenous leukemia. In some cases, thrombocythemia is due to a specific genetic mutation. Some people with thrombocythemia have no signs or symptoms. Others may experience bleeding from the nose or gums, blood clots, heart attack or stroke. When needed, treatment may include: * Low-dose aspirin to reduce clotting risk * Medications such as interferon or hydroxyurea (Hydrea, Droxia) to lower platelet counts in those individuals who are older than age 60, are at high risk of heart disease or have a history of abnormal bleeding or blood clots Essential thrombocythemia is a stem cell disease; "essential" means that the cause is unknown. Blood cells, including red blood cells (which carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body), white blood cells (which fight infections) and platelets (which form blood clots) are produced from stem cells in the bone marrow. The stem cells grow and divide into intermediate cells and finally into mature cells in the blood. A problem with the stem cell can lead to problems with all other cells. ET is a stem cell disease that leads to an overproduction of platelets (thrombocytes) without other secondary causes, sometimes with an accompanying increase in white blood cells. Blood platelets help prevent and control bleeding resulting from injury to blood vessels. The term thrombocythemia refers to an unusually high platelet count. A normal count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter (mL) of blood. When the platelet count exceeds 600,000 platelets per mL, doctors call this essential thrombocythemia. Most young people with essential thrombocythemia have no signs or symptoms. ET is classified as a chronic myeloproliferative disorder (CMPD). The CMPDs also include polycythemia vera, agnogenic myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis, and chronic myelogenous leukemia. Answered by Delila Deschino 1 year ago.

For decades the white blood count and differential were done manually, with the tech staining a blood smear and physically counting the cells. The first automatic counters only counted the total WBC count and the differential was still performed manually. Platelets were estimated as low, normal or increased. If you wanted more info, you ordered a special platelet count. Somewhere around 1980 or thereabouts automated counters came along that could give you an accurate total WBC plus a differential, plus platelets. Surprisingly it took a fairly long time for some of us to realize that platelets were "acute phase reactants" that rose and fell with fever and stress. So while yes, there are disorders associated with increased platelets (see a previous response), it can also be just a reaction to stress. Answered by Shaina Bottoms 1 year ago.

It's unlikely to be leukemia as it tends to lower the platelet count. Answered by Carmen Birnberg 1 year ago.


Sickle Cell Anemia................?
Does anybody have any information on sickle cell anemia like treatments, how it affects the person, support groups. Its for this big project im doin for biology worth about 50% of our term grade. Please help and also list resources. Asked by Miss Tirpak 1 year ago.

Treatments and drugs Bone marrow transplant offers the only potential cure for sickle cell anemia. But very few people have a suitable donor for transplant. As a result, treatment for sickle cell anemia is usually aimed at avoiding crises, relieving symptoms and preventing complications. If you have sickle cell anemia, you'll need to make regular visits to your doctor to check your red blood cell count and monitor your health. You may also require treatment from specialists at a hospital or sickle cell anemia clinic. Treatments may include medications to reduce pain and prevent complications, blood transfusions and supplemental oxygen, as well as bone marrow transplant. Medications Medications used to treat sickle cell anemia include: Antibiotics. Children with sickle cell anemia usually begin taking the antibiotic penicillin when they're about 2 months of age and continue until they're 5 years old. Doing so helps prevent infections, such as pneumonia, which can be life-threatening to an infant or child with sickle cell anemia. Antibiotics may also help adults with sickle cell anemia fight certain infections. Pain-relieving medications. To relieve pain during a sickle crisis, your doctor may advise over-the-counter pain relievers and application of heat to the affected area. You may also need stronger prescription painkillers. Hydroxyurea (Droxia, Hydrea). This prescription drug, normally used to treat cancer, may be helpful for adults with severe disease. When taken daily, it reduces the frequency of painful crises and may reduce the need for blood transfusions. It seems to work by stimulating production of fetal hemoglobin — a type of hemoglobin found in newborns that helps prevent the formation of sickle cells. There is some concern about the possibility that long-term use of this drug may cause tumors or leukemia in certain people. Your doctor can help you determine if this drug may be beneficial for you. Blood transfusions In a red blood cell transfusion, red blood cells are removed from a supply of donated blood. These donated cells are then given intravenously to a person with sickle cell anemia. Blood transfusions increase the number of normal red blood cells in circulation, helping to relieve anemia. In children with sickle cell anemia at high risk of stroke, regular blood transfusions can decrease their risk of stroke. Blood transfusions carry some risk. Blood contains iron. Regular blood transfusions cause an excess amount of iron to build up in your body. Because excess iron can damage your heart, liver and other organs, people who undergo regular transfusions must often receive treatment to reduce iron levels. In 2005, the Food and Drug Administration approved deferasirox (Exjade), the first oral medication that can reduce excess iron levels, for use in people older than the age of 2. Supplemental oxygen Breathing supplemental oxygen through a breathing mask adds oxygen to your blood and helps you breathe easier. It may be helpful if you have acute chest syndrome or a sickle cell crisis. Bone marrow transplant This procedure allows people with sickle cell anemia to replace their bone marrow — and its sickle-shaped red blood cells — with healthy bone marrow from a donor who doesn't have the disease. It can be a cure, but the procedure is risky, and it's difficult to find suitable donors. Researchers are still studying bone marrow transplants for people with sickle cell anemia. Currently, the procedure is recommended only for people who have significant symptoms and problems from sickle cell anemia. In a bone marrow transplant, your bone marrow is first destroyed using chemotherapy or radiation. A matched donor's healthy bone marrow is removed using a minor surgical technique. You then receive a transfusion of that healthy marrow, and the healthy marrow may start producing normal blood cells. Sometimes, however, the transplant doesn't work or the recipient's body rejects the new marrow. The procedure requires a lengthy hospital stay. After the transplant, you'll need drugs to help prevent rejection of the donated marrow. Treating complications Doctors treat most complications of sickle cell anemia as they occur. Treatment may include antibiotics, blood transfusions, pain-relieving medicines, other medications and possibly surgery, such as to correct vision problems or to remove a damaged spleen. Experimental treatments Scientists continue to gain new insights into the symptoms and causes of sickle cell anemia. Some possible new treatments researchers are studying include: Gene therapy. Because sickle cell anemia is caused by a defective gene, researchers are exploring whether correcting this gene and inserting it into the bone marrow of people with sickle cell anemia will result in the production of normal hemoglobin. Scientists are also exploring the possibility of turning off the defective gene while reactivating another gene responsible for the Answered by Lillia Schlaefli 1 year ago.


What does anemia means?
sikle-cell anemia Asked by Chang Escandon 1 year ago.

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder almost completely within the African/African American population, or in other words, black folks. The disease causes the red blood cells to be shaped some what "U" shaped or "Sickle" shaped. Red blood cells should have a doughnut shape. The disease causes two main problems for the person. First off they person's red blood cells have trouble binding O2 molecules, which leads to the person having trouble getting Oxygen to it's cells. Secondly the disease will cause the person to have poor circulation due to the oddly shaped cells having trouble entering and moving through the small capillary vessels. Due to this the person can have HORRIBLE pain especially in there chest and joints. It is a really bad disease, but luckily there are some medications available to treat the effects. So to summarize here It is called "sickle cell" because of the odd "sickle" shaped red blood cells the disease causes. Anemia means that a person has not enough iron in their body. Iron is the main component of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the biochemical that is on the surface of red blood cells that enables it to carry oxygen. Hope this answers your question! Answered by Cleo Sosna 1 year ago.

interior the scientific accepted term, anemia ability that the blood isn't able to hold adequate oxygen for the physique's cells. there are various categories of anemia and in basic terms your physician can prognosis which style of anemia you have and prescribe an suited therapy. Answered by Emile Camerena 1 year ago.

dark skin people get it . somme thing with there cells. Answered by Grayce Urrea 1 year ago.


I want to know about recent treatment for sickle-cell anemia diseas?
Need information concerning different treatments available for sickle-cell anemia. Asked by Lianne Capshaws 1 year ago.

Health maintenance for patients with sickle cell disease starts with early diagnosis, preferably in the newborn period and includes penicillin prophylaxis, vaccination against pneumococcus bacteria and folic acid supplementation. Treatment of complications often includes antibiotics, pain management, intravenous fluids, blood transfusion and surgery all backed by psychosocial support. Like all patients with chronic disease patients are best managed in a comprehensive multi-disciplinary program of care. Blood transfusions help benefit sickle cell disease patients by reducing recurrent pain crises, risk of stroke and other complications. Because red blood cells contain iron, and there is no natural way for the body to eliminate it, patients who receive repeated blood transfusions can accumulate iron in the body until it reaches toxic levels. It is important to remove excess iron from the body, because it can gather in the heart, liver, and other organs and may lead to organ damage. Treatments are available to eliminate iron overload. In search for a substance that can prevent red blood cells from sickling without causing harm to other parts of the body, Hydroxyurea was found to reduce the frequency of severe pain, acute chest syndrome and the need for blood transfusions in adult patients with sickle cell disease. Droxia, the prescription form of hydroxyurea, was approved by the FDA in 1998 and is now available for adult patients with sickle cell anemia. Studies will now be conducted to determine the proper dosage for children. Answered by Heather Laditka 1 year ago.

Definite treatment--- Bone marrow transplant. Supportive----- Hydroxyurea increases the amount of fetal hemoglobin and reduces sickling. Folic acid should be given and blood transfusions when necessary. During painful crises, pain- killers are given. Answered by Renea Giffin 1 year ago.

why stem cell match are so difficult for sickle cell anemia clients Answered by Moses Killius 1 year ago.


Purple pill with "ox'' on it and its round? 10 points for fastest answer!!?
my friends boyfriend has some of these pills that say ox on them and they are purple. supposedly they are just testosterone enhancers, but he has become more aggiated and agressive lately, what are these pills for and what are the side effects?? he says he wants to build muscle and they arent steriods is that true?... Asked by Misha Mccurley 1 year ago.

my friends boyfriend has some of these pills that say ox on them and they are purple. supposedly they are just testosterone enhancers, but he has become more aggiated and agressive lately, what are these pills for and what are the side effects?? he says he wants to build muscle and they arent steriods is that true? thanks for any help!!! fastest answer gets 10 points! Answered by Danika Presho 1 year ago.

WedMD is showing Droxia and Levoxyl. One is used to control sickle cell anemia, the other is used to help hypothyroidism. Answered by Sheba Hohm 1 year ago.


What kinds of treatments are there for sickle cell anemia?
how do they work? what are their limitations? what kinds of treatments are there? Asked by Helene Rodine 1 year ago.

1. One method for treating sickle cell anemia is to reduce the concentration of defective hemoglobin by stimulating the body to make other kinds of hemoglobin. Hydroxyurea Hydroxyurea (Droxia), a cancer medication, has been shown to reduce pain and complications in sickle cell anemia in adults. It is still being investigated for use in children, with special concern for how hydroxyurea may affect child growth and development. Butyrate, arginine Two other drugs being investigated to stimulate hemoglobin production are butyrate and arginine. Studies have shown both drugs not only increase healthy hemoglobin but reduce the symptoms of sickle cell anemia as well. 2. Since the pain of sickle cell anemia comes from blood vessels being blocked off, another method of treatment would be to get more oxygen to the painful areas. Poloxamer 188 Poloxamer 188 (Flocor), made by CytRx Corp., has been shown in studies to decrease the length of painful episodes in sickle cell anemia by improving blood flow in the tiny blood vessels around the painful area. In June 2001 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted CytRx permission to put Flocor on the fast track for development, for treatment of acute chest syndrome. 3. Sickled red blood cells could also be made less "sticky" and thus less likely to block off blood vessels. Sulphasalazine A study published in 2001 showed that the drug sulphasalazine could reduce the number of "sticky" molecules on red blood cells in sickle cell anemia. 4. The gene that causes red blood cells to sickle was identified more than 40 years ago. Researchers are looking at two methods of using that knowledge for gene therapy: take out some of the person's cells, "fix" the defective gene, and put it back in the bone marrow so that only the correct version of the gene will be made figure out how to "turn off" the defective gene and "turn on" another gene that makes healthy hemoglobin. No doubt this and other research will reduce the pain and anemia of sickle cell disease, and perhaps even provide a cure. Answered by Elizabeth Suggett 1 year ago.

Hi Maura, A very good response by WellWisher! I'd only like to add that Hydroxyurea (an old cancer chemo drug) is very effective in children, too. Unfortunately, not many specialists are utilizing it yet. It's safe, & side-effect free in low doses. I helped care for a beautiful 8yr old girl who has responded wonderfully to it. She hasn't had to be hospitalized since. Educate yourself about the disease, Maura. If you take care of yourself. You'll be able to live a perfectly normal, happy life. That is, even if a cure doesn't come sooner. Unfortunately, there is a shortage of Doctors specializing in sickle cell due to economics (here in the U.S.). I am aware of one in southern NY state. I don't know where you are. This is a perfectly treatable illness, Maura. Learning how to manage it will greatly reduce your fears. In time, it won't phase you @all. Good Luck :-). Answered by Curtis Dito 1 year ago.

There is no cure for sickle cell anemia, and it is possible for some people to be ill enough to die from the disease (although most young people with sickle cell anemia don't die). Doctors can provide treatments that help prevent complications from the disease, though. Folic acid, a vitamin that helps the body produce new red blood cells, is often prescribed for teens with sickle cell anemia. Pain medications help relieve the symptoms of crises. And kids and teens who have sickle cell disease should take penicillin or other antibiotics to help prevent infections. Some crises can be managed at home with pain medicines, rest, and extra fluids. But if a crisis is especially intense, a teen may need to go to the hospital for intravenous (IV) fluids and stronger pain medications. People with sickle cell anemia may also use oxygen to help ease symptoms during a crisis or an episode of acute chest syndrome. Teens with sickle cell anemia may need to get transfusions of healthy red blood cells to help carry oxygen to the tissues of their bodies more effectively, and some may need many transfusions on a regular basis. Scientists are constantly researching ways to help people with sickle cell anemia. Several new treatments, such as the drug hydroxyurea, have helped reduce painful crises and episodes of acute chest syndrome in adults with the condition. These drugs have also decreased the need for hospitalization. Scientists are also testing these and other drugs to see if they work for kids and teens. In rare cases, people with severe sickle cell anemia may be given a bone marrow transplant to help them produce healthy hemoglobin and normal RBCs. Scientists are also studying gene therapy as a treatment for sickle cell anemia. One day, doctors may be able to stop the disease by changing or replacing the abnormal gene that causes it. What Can You Do to Stay Well? With the right precautions, teens with sickle cell disease can do most of the stuff other teens do. To stay as healthy as possible, take these steps: Eat a balanced, healthy diet. Take vitamins, including folic acid supplements, as prescribed. Drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. Avoid extreme cold or heat. Exercise regularly, but in moderation. Exercise is important for staying healthy, but overdoing it can trigger a crisis in some people, particularly if they become dehydrated, overheated, or exhausted. Get plenty of rest. Avoid alcohol, drugs, and smoking, which can aggravate sickle cell disease and its symptoms. Some people with sickle cell disease are prone to lung problems, so smoking is particularly risky and must be avoided. Avoid places low in oxygen. (For example, it's not a good idea to go hiking at high altitudes or spend lots of time swimming under water.) Prevent serious infections by contacting your doctor as soon as illness symptoms start. Be sure to get any immunizations (such as pneumonia and flu vaccines) that the doctor recommends, and always call your doctor if you have a high fever (over 101° Fahrenheit). Learn as much as you can about the disease and see your doctor regularly to help prevent complications. Teens with sickle cell disease may need to put some limits on their lives, but with the help of doctors, friends, and family, they can manage the condition and live their lives to the fullest. Answered by Lavonda Hazelhurst 1 year ago.


Alternative and Complimentry treatments for Sicke Cell Anemia?
What do you guys personally think about alternative and complimentry treatments for Sickle Cell Anemia? Asked by Rickie Seidensticker 1 year ago.

Promising therapies being investigated The following are some of the treatments for sickle cell anemia being investigated through research. 1. One method for treating sickle cell anemia is to reduce the concentration of defective hemoglobin by stimulating the body to make other kinds of hemoglobin. Hydroxyurea Hydroxyurea (Droxia), a cancer medication, has been shown to reduce pain and complications in sickle cell anemia in adults. It is still being investigated for use in children, with special concern for how hydroxyurea may affect child growth and development. [Wang, W. C., Helms, R. W., Lynn, H. S., et al. (2002) Effect of hydroxyurea on growth in children with sickle cell anemia: Results of the HUG-KIDS study. Journal of Pediatrics 140(2), pp 225-229] Butyrate, arginine Two other drugs being investigated to stimulate hemoglobin production are butyrate and arginine. Studies have shown both drugs not only increase healthy hemoglobin but reduce the symptoms of sickle cell anemia as well. [Armandola, E. A. (2002). Management of sickle cell anemia: New approaches. 7th Congress of the European Hematology Association.] 2. Since the pain of sickle cell anemia comes from blood vessels being blocked off, another method of treatment would be to get more oxygen to the painful areas. Poloxamer 188 Poloxamer 188 (Flocor), made by CytRx Corp., has been shown in studies to decrease the length of painful episodes in sickle cell anemia by improving blood flow in the tiny blood vessels around the painful area. In June 2001 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted CytRx permission to put Flocor on the fast track for development, for treatment of acute chest syndrome. [Marlowe, K. F., & Chicella, M. F. (2002). Treatment of sickle cell pain. Pharmacotherapy 22(4), pp. 484-491.] 3. Sickled red blood cells could also be made less "sticky" and thus less likely to block off blood vessels. Sulphasalazine A study published in 2001 showed that the drug sulphasalazine could reduce the number of "sticky" molecules on red blood cells in sickle cell anemia. [Solovey, A. A., Solovey, A. N., Harkness, J., & Hebbel, R. P. (2001). Modulation of endothelial cell activation in sickle cell disease: A pilot study. Blood 97, pp. 1937-1941.] 4. The gene that causes red blood cells to sickle was identified more than 40 years ago. Researchers are looking at two methods of using that knowledge for gene therapy: take out some of the person's cells, "fix" the defective gene, and put it back in the bone marrow so that only the correct version of the gene will be made figure out how to "turn off" the defective gene and "turn on" another gene that makes healthy hemoglobin No doubt this and other research will reduce the pain and anemia of sickle cell disease, and perhaps even provide a cure. Answered by Janine Lorente 1 year ago.

That's Sickle Cell Anemia. Other than that, I've no idea what you are talking about. We need more details to respond. Answered by Lera Dobrzykowski 1 year ago.


What is the major of chemotherapy agents in anti-cancer drugs ?
Asked by Vennie Slicker 1 year ago.

There are many different chemotherapy agents. Different drugs work for different cancers, and they are frequently used in combination. You need to be more specific. Here is a list of chemo drugs: 13-cis-Retinoic Acid 2-CdA 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine 5-Fluorouracil 5-FU 6-Mercaptopurine 6-MP 6-TG 6-Thioguanine Abraxane Accutane ® Actinomycin-D Adriamycin ® Adrucil ® Agrylin ® Ala-Cort ® Aldesleukin Alemtuzumab ALIMTA Alitretinoin Alkaban-AQ ® Alkeran ® All-transretinoic acid Alpha interferon Altretamine Amethopterin Amifostine Aminoglutethimide Anagrelide Anandron ® Anastrozole Arabinosylcytosine Ara-C Aranesp ® Aredia ® Arimidex ® Aromasin ® Arranon ® Arsenic trioxide Asparaginase ATRA Avastin ® Azacitidine BCG BCNU Bevacizumab Bexarotene BEXXAR ® Bicalutamide BiCNU Blenoxane ® Bleomycin Bortezomib Busulfan Busulfex ® C225 Calcium Leucovorin Campath ® Camptosar ® Camptothecin-11 Capecitabine Carac ™ Carboplatin Carmustine Carmustine wafer Casodex ® CC-5013 CCNU CDDP CeeNU Cerubidine ® Cetuximab Chlorambucil Cisplatin Citrovorum Factor Cladribine Cortisone Cosmegen ® CPT-11 Cyclophosphamide Cytadren ® Cytarabine Cytarabine liposomal Cytosar-U ® Cytoxan ® Dacarbazine Dacogen Dactinomycin Darbepoetin alfa Daunomycin Daunorubicin Daunorubicin hydrochloride Daunorubicin liposomal DaunoXome ® Decadron Decitabine Delta-Cortef ® Deltasone ® Denileukin diftitox DepoCyt ™ Dexamethasone Dexamethasone acetate Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Dexasone Dexrazoxane DHAD DIC Diodex Docetaxel Doxil ® Doxorubicin Doxorubicin liposomal Droxia ™ DTIC DTIC-Dome ® Duralone ® Efudex ® Eligard ™ Ellence ™ Eloxatin ™ Elspar ® Emcyt ® Epirubicin Epoetin alfa Erbitux ™ Erlotinib Erwinia L-asparaginase Estramustine Ethyol Etopophos ® Etoposide Etoposide Phosphate Eulexin ® Evista ® Exemestane Fareston ® Faslodex ® Femara ® Filgrastim Floxuridine Fludara ® Fludarabine Fluoroplex ® Fluorouracil Fluorouracil (cream) Fluoxymesterone Flutamide Folinic Acid FUDR ® Fulvestrant G-CSF Gefitinib Gemcitabine Gemtuzumab ozogamicin Gemzar ® GleevecTM Gliadel wafer (t) GM-CSF Goserelin granulocyte - colony stimulating factor (t) Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (o) Halotestin (t) Herceptin (t) Hexadrol (t) Hexalen (t) Hexamethylmelamine (t) HMM (t) Hycamtin (t) Hydrea (t) Hydrocort Acetate (t) Hydrocortisone Hydrocortisone sodium phosphate Hydrocortisone sodium succinate Hydrocortone phosphate (t) Hydroxyurea Ibritumomab Ibritumomab Tiuxetan Idamycin ® Idarubicin Ifex ® IFN-alpha Ifosfamide IL-11 IL-2 Imatinib mesylate Imidazole Carboxamide Interferon alfa Interferon Alfa-2b (PEG conjugate) (o) Interleukin - 2 (t) Interleukin-11 (o) Intron A® (interferon alfa-2b) Iressa ® Irinotecan Isotretinoin Kidrolase (t) Lanacort (t) L-asparaginase (t) LCR (o) Lenalidomide Letrozole Leucovorin Leukeran (t) Leukine (t) Leuprolide Leurocristine (o) Leustatin (t) Liposomal Ara-C (t) Liquid Pred (t) Lomustine L-PAM (o) L-Sarcolysin (o) Lupron (t) Lupron Depot ® Matulane (t) Maxidex (t) Mechlorethamine Mechlorethamine Hydrochloride Medralone (t) Medrol ® Megace (t) Megestrol Megestrol Acetate (o) Melphalan Mercaptopurine Mesna Mesnex (t) Methotrexate Methotrexate Sodium (o) Methylprednisolone Meticorten (t) Mitomycin Mitomycin-C (o) Mitoxantrone M-Prednisol (t) MTC (o) MTX (o) Mustargen (t) Mustine Mutamycin (t) Myleran (t) Mylocel (t) Mylotarg (t) Navelbine ® Nelarabine Neosar (t) Neulasta (t) Neumega (t) Neupogen ® Nexavar ® Nilandron (t) Nilutamide Nipent ® Nitrogen Mustard (o) Novaldex (t) Novantrone (t) Octreotide Octreotide acetate (o) Oncospar (t) Oncovin (t) Ontak (t) Onxal (t) Oprevelkin Orapred (t) Orasone (t) Oxaliplatin Paclitaxel Paclitaxel Protein-bound Pamidronate Panretin (t) Paraplatin (t) Pediapred (t) PEG Interferon Pegaspargase Pegfilgrastim PEG-INTRON (t) PEG-L-asparaginase PEMETREXED Pentostatin Phenylalanine Mustard (o) Platinol (t) Platinol-AQ (t) Prednisolone Prednisone Prelone (t) Procarbazine PROCRIT ® Proleukin (t) Prolifeprospan 20 with Carmustine implant (t) Purinethol ® Raloxifene Revlimid ® Rheumatrex (t) Rituxan (t) Rituximab Roferon-A® (interferon alfa-2a) Rubex (t) Rubidomycin hydrochloride (t) Sandostatin ® Sandostatin LAR (t) Sargramostim Solu-Cortef (t) Solu-Medrol (t) Sorafenib STI-571 Streptozocin SU11248 Sunitinib Sutent ® Tamoxifen Tarceva ® Targretin (t) Taxol ® Taxotere ® Temodar ® Temozolomide Teniposide TESPA (o) Thalidomide Thalomid ® TheraCys (t) Thioguanine Thioguanine Tabloid ® Thiophosphoamide (o) Thioplex (t) Thiotepa TICE ® Toposar (t) Topotecan Toremifene Tositumomab Trastuzumab Tretinoin Trexall (t) Trisenox (t) TSPA (o) VCR (o) Velban (t) Velcade ® VePesid (t) Vesanoid (t) Viadur (t) Vidaza (t) Vinblastine Vinblastine Sulfate (o) Vincasar Pfs (t) Vincristine Vinorelbine Vinorelbine tartrate (o) VLB (o) VM-26 (o) VP-16 (t) Vumon (t) Xeloda ® Zanosar (t) Zevalin TM Zinecard (t) Zoladex ® Zoledronic acid Zometa ® See? There's a lot of them. Answered by Azzie Aldworth 1 year ago.

antineoplastics, monoclonal antibodies, Answered by Chau Stonge 1 year ago.

Please see the webpages for more details on Chemotherapy. Answered by Carrol Malakan 1 year ago.


What does it mean if someone has a higher than average level of platelets in their blood?
What are the causes and what does it mean. Someone has mentioned Leukemia to me and now I'm panicking a little. The doctor has said to go back in 6 weeks for another blood test. Asked by Lesha Haukaas 1 year ago.

Thrombocythemia (high platelet count) Thrombocythemia refers to a high platelet count. Platelets (thrombocytes) play an important role in blood clotting. The term "essential thrombocythemia" means that the cause of a high platelet count can't be determined. A normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. In very large numbers — exceeding 600,000 platelets per microliter — platelets may cause clotting in blood vessels and abnormal bleeding. A doctor may diagnose essential thrombocythemia by blood tests that show a sustained increase in platelets not due to another condition, such as polycythemia vera or chronic myelogenous leukemia. In some cases, thrombocythemia is due to a specific genetic mutation. Some people with thrombocythemia have no signs or symptoms. Others may experience bleeding from the nose or gums, blood clots, heart attack or stroke. When needed, treatment may include: * Low-dose aspirin to reduce clotting risk * Medications such as interferon or hydroxyurea (Hydrea, Droxia) to lower platelet counts in those individuals who are older than age 60, are at high risk of heart disease or have a history of abnormal bleeding or blood clots Essential thrombocythemia is a stem cell disease; "essential" means that the cause is unknown. Blood cells, including red blood cells (which carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body), white blood cells (which fight infections) and platelets (which form blood clots) are produced from stem cells in the bone marrow. The stem cells grow and divide into intermediate cells and finally into mature cells in the blood. A problem with the stem cell can lead to problems with all other cells. ET is a stem cell disease that leads to an overproduction of platelets (thrombocytes) without other secondary causes, sometimes with an accompanying increase in white blood cells. Blood platelets help prevent and control bleeding resulting from injury to blood vessels. The term thrombocythemia refers to an unusually high platelet count. A normal count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter (mL) of blood. When the platelet count exceeds 600,000 platelets per mL, doctors call this essential thrombocythemia. Most young people with essential thrombocythemia have no signs or symptoms. ET is classified as a chronic myeloproliferative disorder (CMPD). The CMPDs also include polycythemia vera, agnogenic myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis, and chronic myelogenous leukemia. Answered by Teodora Arundel 1 year ago.

For decades the white blood count and differential were done manually, with the tech staining a blood smear and physically counting the cells. The first automatic counters only counted the total WBC count and the differential was still performed manually. Platelets were estimated as low, normal or increased. If you wanted more info, you ordered a special platelet count. Somewhere around 1980 or thereabouts automated counters came along that could give you an accurate total WBC plus a differential, plus platelets. Surprisingly it took a fairly long time for some of us to realize that platelets were "acute phase reactants" that rose and fell with fever and stress. So while yes, there are disorders associated with increased platelets (see a previous response), it can also be just a reaction to stress. Answered by Rhoda Mccune 1 year ago.

It's unlikely to be leukemia as it tends to lower the platelet count. Answered by Tomoko Weckman 1 year ago.


Sickle Cell Anemia................?
Does anybody have any information on sickle cell anemia like treatments, how it affects the person, support groups. Its for this big project im doin for biology worth about 50% of our term grade. Please help and also list resources. Asked by Versie Ravenel 1 year ago.

Treatments and drugs Bone marrow transplant offers the only potential cure for sickle cell anemia. But very few people have a suitable donor for transplant. As a result, treatment for sickle cell anemia is usually aimed at avoiding crises, relieving symptoms and preventing complications. If you have sickle cell anemia, you'll need to make regular visits to your doctor to check your red blood cell count and monitor your health. You may also require treatment from specialists at a hospital or sickle cell anemia clinic. Treatments may include medications to reduce pain and prevent complications, blood transfusions and supplemental oxygen, as well as bone marrow transplant. Medications Medications used to treat sickle cell anemia include: Antibiotics. Children with sickle cell anemia usually begin taking the antibiotic penicillin when they're about 2 months of age and continue until they're 5 years old. Doing so helps prevent infections, such as pneumonia, which can be life-threatening to an infant or child with sickle cell anemia. Antibiotics may also help adults with sickle cell anemia fight certain infections. Pain-relieving medications. To relieve pain during a sickle crisis, your doctor may advise over-the-counter pain relievers and application of heat to the affected area. You may also need stronger prescription painkillers. Hydroxyurea (Droxia, Hydrea). This prescription drug, normally used to treat cancer, may be helpful for adults with severe disease. When taken daily, it reduces the frequency of painful crises and may reduce the need for blood transfusions. It seems to work by stimulating production of fetal hemoglobin — a type of hemoglobin found in newborns that helps prevent the formation of sickle cells. There is some concern about the possibility that long-term use of this drug may cause tumors or leukemia in certain people. Your doctor can help you determine if this drug may be beneficial for you. Blood transfusions In a red blood cell transfusion, red blood cells are removed from a supply of donated blood. These donated cells are then given intravenously to a person with sickle cell anemia. Blood transfusions increase the number of normal red blood cells in circulation, helping to relieve anemia. In children with sickle cell anemia at high risk of stroke, regular blood transfusions can decrease their risk of stroke. Blood transfusions carry some risk. Blood contains iron. Regular blood transfusions cause an excess amount of iron to build up in your body. Because excess iron can damage your heart, liver and other organs, people who undergo regular transfusions must often receive treatment to reduce iron levels. In 2005, the Food and Drug Administration approved deferasirox (Exjade), the first oral medication that can reduce excess iron levels, for use in people older than the age of 2. Supplemental oxygen Breathing supplemental oxygen through a breathing mask adds oxygen to your blood and helps you breathe easier. It may be helpful if you have acute chest syndrome or a sickle cell crisis. Bone marrow transplant This procedure allows people with sickle cell anemia to replace their bone marrow — and its sickle-shaped red blood cells — with healthy bone marrow from a donor who doesn't have the disease. It can be a cure, but the procedure is risky, and it's difficult to find suitable donors. Researchers are still studying bone marrow transplants for people with sickle cell anemia. Currently, the procedure is recommended only for people who have significant symptoms and problems from sickle cell anemia. In a bone marrow transplant, your bone marrow is first destroyed using chemotherapy or radiation. A matched donor's healthy bone marrow is removed using a minor surgical technique. You then receive a transfusion of that healthy marrow, and the healthy marrow may start producing normal blood cells. Sometimes, however, the transplant doesn't work or the recipient's body rejects the new marrow. The procedure requires a lengthy hospital stay. After the transplant, you'll need drugs to help prevent rejection of the donated marrow. Treating complications Doctors treat most complications of sickle cell anemia as they occur. Treatment may include antibiotics, blood transfusions, pain-relieving medicines, other medications and possibly surgery, such as to correct vision problems or to remove a damaged spleen. Experimental treatments Scientists continue to gain new insights into the symptoms and causes of sickle cell anemia. Some possible new treatments researchers are studying include: Gene therapy. Because sickle cell anemia is caused by a defective gene, researchers are exploring whether correcting this gene and inserting it into the bone marrow of people with sickle cell anemia will result in the production of normal hemoglobin. Scientists are also exploring the possibility of turning off the defective gene while reactivating another gene responsible for the Answered by Lanell Voight 1 year ago.


What does anemia means?
sikle-cell anemia Asked by Ozella Bastida 1 year ago.

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder almost completely within the African/African American population, or in other words, black folks. The disease causes the red blood cells to be shaped some what "U" shaped or "Sickle" shaped. Red blood cells should have a doughnut shape. The disease causes two main problems for the person. First off they person's red blood cells have trouble binding O2 molecules, which leads to the person having trouble getting Oxygen to it's cells. Secondly the disease will cause the person to have poor circulation due to the oddly shaped cells having trouble entering and moving through the small capillary vessels. Due to this the person can have HORRIBLE pain especially in there chest and joints. It is a really bad disease, but luckily there are some medications available to treat the effects. So to summarize here It is called "sickle cell" because of the odd "sickle" shaped red blood cells the disease causes. Anemia means that a person has not enough iron in their body. Iron is the main component of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the biochemical that is on the surface of red blood cells that enables it to carry oxygen. Hope this answers your question! Answered by Krystyna Sepulueda 1 year ago.

interior the scientific accepted term, anemia ability that the blood isn't able to hold adequate oxygen for the physique's cells. there are various categories of anemia and in basic terms your physician can prognosis which style of anemia you have and prescribe an suited therapy. Answered by Rosa Wheelwright 1 year ago.

dark skin people get it . somme thing with there cells. Answered by Kandis Bourassa 1 year ago.


I want to know about recent treatment for sickle-cell anemia diseas?
Need information concerning different treatments available for sickle-cell anemia. Asked by Kacie Drees 1 year ago.

Health maintenance for patients with sickle cell disease starts with early diagnosis, preferably in the newborn period and includes penicillin prophylaxis, vaccination against pneumococcus bacteria and folic acid supplementation. Treatment of complications often includes antibiotics, pain management, intravenous fluids, blood transfusion and surgery all backed by psychosocial support. Like all patients with chronic disease patients are best managed in a comprehensive multi-disciplinary program of care. Blood transfusions help benefit sickle cell disease patients by reducing recurrent pain crises, risk of stroke and other complications. Because red blood cells contain iron, and there is no natural way for the body to eliminate it, patients who receive repeated blood transfusions can accumulate iron in the body until it reaches toxic levels. It is important to remove excess iron from the body, because it can gather in the heart, liver, and other organs and may lead to organ damage. Treatments are available to eliminate iron overload. In search for a substance that can prevent red blood cells from sickling without causing harm to other parts of the body, Hydroxyurea was found to reduce the frequency of severe pain, acute chest syndrome and the need for blood transfusions in adult patients with sickle cell disease. Droxia, the prescription form of hydroxyurea, was approved by the FDA in 1998 and is now available for adult patients with sickle cell anemia. Studies will now be conducted to determine the proper dosage for children. Answered by Sommer Werst 1 year ago.

Definite treatment--- Bone marrow transplant. Supportive----- Hydroxyurea increases the amount of fetal hemoglobin and reduces sickling. Folic acid should be given and blood transfusions when necessary. During painful crises, pain- killers are given. Answered by Despina Rieken 1 year ago.

why stem cell match are so difficult for sickle cell anemia clients Answered by Willie Parkos 1 year ago.


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