Application Information

This drug has been submitted to the FDA under the reference 019661/001.

Names and composition

"CYTOVENE" is the commercial name of a drug composed of GANCICLOVIR SODIUM.

Forms

ApplId/ProductId Drug name Active ingredient Form Strenght
019661/001 CYTOVENE GANCICLOVIR SODIUM INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 500MG BASE per VIAL
020460/001 CYTOVENE GANCICLOVIR CAPSULE/ORAL 250MG **Federal Register determination that product was not discontinued or withdrawn for safety or efficacy reasons**
020460/002 CYTOVENE GANCICLOVIR CAPSULE/ORAL 500MG **Federal Register determination that product was not discontinued or withdrawn for safety or efficacy reasons**

Similar Active Ingredient

ApplId/ProductId Drug name Active ingredient Form Strenght
019661/001 CYTOVENE GANCICLOVIR SODIUM INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 500MG BASE per VIAL
076222/001 GANCICLOVIR SODIUM GANCICLOVIR SODIUM INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 500MG BASE per VIAL
090658/001 GANCICLOVIR GANCICLOVIR SODIUM INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 500MG BASE per VIAL
202624/001 GANCICLOVIR GANCICLOVIR SODIUM INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 500MG BASE per VIAL
204950/001 GANCICLOVIR GANCICLOVIR SODIUM INJECTABLE/INJECTION EQ 500MG BASE per VIAL

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Answered questions

Cytofrene treatment yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy?
for virus c treatment bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb Asked by Tressa Schuh 1 year ago.

Do you mean CYTOVENE??? If so, CYTOVENE-IV is indicated for the treatment of CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients, including patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). CYTOVENE-IV is also indicated for the prevention of CMV disease in transplant recipients at risk for CMV disease (Cytomegalovirus). Also, Cytovene capsules are indicated for the prevention of CMV disease in solid organ transplant recipients and in individuals with advanced HIV infection at risk for developing CMV disease. CYTOVENE capsules are also indicated as an alternative to the intravenous formulation for maintenance treatment of CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients, including patients with AIDS, in whom retinitis is stable following appropriate induction therapy and for whom the risk of more rapid progression is balanced by the benefit associated with avoiding daily IV infusions. Answered by Roland Rizzuto 1 year ago.

im simply brooding about how lengthy you had been absent, and why you didnt have near peers or acquaintances who would have contacted you, or why couldnt gwen herself have contacted you at a few factor earlier than she acquired to in poor health to take action? additionally, why did this neighbor deliver gwen's household's deal with to the hospice--did gwen inform them to? why didnt gwen ask that you simply be contacted as a substitute? had been you someplace in which you had been incommunicado? this tale sounds stuffed with holes to me. but when its a real account, then sure, via all method that is horrid and abominable therapy of a daughter. Answered by Ian Pilant 1 year ago.


Can a single adult make get medicaid? How? whats the criteria?
He has no insurance and really needs some health care. He has always worked in the past but is out of work right now due to health problems. Asked by Jacquelynn Pressly 1 year ago.

Honestly single women have an easier time gettin medicaid...but it is always worth a try it is all based on imcome and family size pretty much Answered by Jodie Higginbothan 1 year ago.


Are there cures for ecephilitis...?
Asked by Darius Danowski 1 year ago.

Definition Encephalitis is an inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the brain, usually caused by infections. See also meningitis. Treatment Treatment for mild cases mainly consists of rest and a healthy diet, including plenty of liquids, to let your immune system fight the virus. Using acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) can relieve headaches and fever. Anti-inflammatory drugs can help reduce swelling and pressure within your skull. If you're having seizures, your doctor may prescribe an anticonvulsant medication. In some cases, you may also need physical and speech therapy. Encephalitis can be difficult to treat because the viruses that cause the disease generally don't respond to medications. However, some viruses, particularly the herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus, respond to antiviral drugs such as acyclovir (Zovirax). If you have one of these kinds of virus-induced encephalitis, your doctor will likely start treatment with acyclovir immediately. It's usually administered intravenously while you're in the hospital for at least 10 days. Another antiviral that's sometimes used is ganciclovir (Cytovene). Scientists are currently investigating interferon therapy — a type of immune cell therapy — as a treatment for encephalitis caused by the St. Louis and West Nile viruses. A pilot study of the treatment showed that patients who received the therapy recovered better than those who didn't receive therapy. However, more studies are needed before the treatment can be approved for these illnesses. Causes, incidence, and risk factors Encephalitis is most often caused by a viral infection, and many types of viruses may cause it. Exposure to viruses can occur through insect bites, food or drink contamination, inhalation of respiratory droplets from an infected person, or skin contact. In rural areas, arboviruses -- carried by mosquitoes or ticks, or accidentally ingested -- are the most common cause. In urban areas, enteroviruses are most common, including coxsackievirus, poliovirus, and echovirus. Other causes include herpes simplex infection, varicella (chickenpox or shingles), measles, mumps, rubella, adenovirus, rabies, West Nile virus, and extremely rarely, vaccinations. Once the virus has entered the bloodstream, it may localize in the brain, causing inflammation of brain tissue and surrounding membranes. White blood cells invade the brain tissue as they try to fight off the infection. The brain tissue swells (cerebral edema), which may cause destruction of nerve cells, bleeding within the brain (intracerebral hemorrhage), and brain damage. Encephalitis is uncommon. It affects approximately 1,500 people per year in the U.S. The elderly and infants are more vulnerable and may have a more severe course of the disease. Symptoms Fever Headache Vomiting Light-sensitivity of the eyes Stiff neck and back (occasionally) Confusion, disorientation Drowsiness Clumsiness, unsteady gait Irritability or poor temper control Emergency symptoms: Loss of consciousness, poor responsiveness, stupor, coma Seizures Muscle weakness or paralysis Sudden onset of: Memory loss (amnesia), impaired short-term memory or impaired long-term memory "Flat" mood or lack of discernible mood, or mood inappropriate for the situation Diminished interest in daily activities Inflexibility, extreme self-centeredness, indecisiveness, or withdrawal from social interaction Impaired judgment Signs and tests Various symptoms resembling meningitis may be present. An examination may show signs of meningeal irritation (especially neck stiffness), increased intracranial pressure, or other neurologic symptoms such as muscle weakness, mental confusion, speech problems, and abnormal reflexes. The patient may have a skin rash, mouth ulcers, and signs of involvement of other organs such as the liver and lungs. A lumbar puncture test and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination may show clear fluid, high pressure, high white blood cell count and protein levels -- indications of inflammation. Blood may be present in the CSF. Sometimes the virus can be detected in CSF, blood, or urine through a laboratory test called viral culture. However, this test is cumbersome and rarely useful. In some cases, viral PCR (polymerase chain reaction), a test able to detect very tiny amounts of viral DNA) may identify the virus. Health care providers also rely on serology tests (serologies detect some proteins called antibodies, which are produced in response to an specific virus) to provide evidence of viral infection. An EEG (a test of the electrical activity of the brain) may provide indirect clues for the diagnosis of encephalitis. Some EEG wave patterns may suggest a seizure disorder, or point to a specific virus as cause of the infection. Certain EEG wave patterns can suggest encephalitis due to herpes, for instance. A brain MRI, which provides high-quality pictures of the brain, or a CAT scan of the head may be used to determine internal bleeding or focal areas of brain inflammation. Answered by Paola Skilton 1 year ago.


What do you do when after valve replacement encephalitis is present?
and on a ventilator for 3months after. Asked by Carrie Bedocs 1 year ago.

Encephalitis (en-sef-uh-LI-tis) is inflammation of the brain. Viral infections are the most common cause of the condition. Encephalitis can cause flu-like symptoms, such as a fever or severe headache, as well as confused thinking, seizures, or problems with senses or movement. Many cases of encephalitis may go unnoticed because they result in only mild flu-like symptoms or even no symptoms. Severe cases of encephalitis, while relatively rare, can be life-threatening. Because the course of any single case of encephalitis is relatively unpredictable, it's important to get a timely diagnosis and treatment. >>Treatment for mild cases mainly consists of: Bed rest Plenty of fluids Anti-inflammatory drugs — such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, others) — to relieve headaches and fever. Antiviral drugs More-serious cases of encephalitis usually require aggressive antiviral treatments. Antiviral drugs commonly used to treat encephalitis include: Acyclovir (Zovirax) Ganciclovir (Cytovene) Some viruses, such as insect-borne viruses, don't respond to these treatments. However, because the specific virus causing the infection may not be identified immediately or at all, treatment with acyclovir is often begun immediately. This drug can be effective against the herpes simplex virus, which can result in significant complications or death when not treated promptly. Side effects of the antiviral drugs may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, and muscle or joint soreness or pain. Rare serious problems may include abnormalities in kidney or liver function or suppression of bone marrow activity. Appropriate tests are used to monitor for serious adverse effects. Supportive care Additional supportive care also is needed in the hospital for people with severe encephalitis. The care may include: Breathing assistance, as well as careful monitoring of breathing and heart function Intravenous fluids to ensure proper hydration and appropriate levels of essential minerals Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as corticosteroids, to help reduce swelling and pressure within the skull Anticonvulsant medications, such as phenytoin (Dilantin), to stop or prevent seizures. Follow-up therapy After the initial illness, it may be necessary to receive additional therapy depending on the type and severity of complications. This therapy may include: Physical therapy to improve strength, flexibility, balance, motor coordination and mobility Occupational therapy to develop everyday skills and to use adaptive products that help with everyday activities Speech therapy to relearn muscle control and coordination to produce speech Psychotherapy to learn coping strategies and new behavioral skills to improve mood disorders or address personality changes — with medication management if necessary. Answered by Nilda Beauliev 1 year ago.


Where can I go to get individual health insurance with a pre-existing condition? And please don't say BCBS.
My daughter had non-Hodgkins lymphoma about 3 years ago. When she applied at Blue Cross Blue Shield they said no. Where can she go? Thanks. Asked by Casey Lepping 1 year ago.

How old is your daughter? If she's under 18, some states offer free health care called CHIP. Answered by Alida Leflar 1 year ago.


Do HIV+ people have typically lower wbc numbers?
Asked by Piedad Dewolf 1 year ago.

White Blood Cell (WBC) Count: White blood cells, also called leukocytes, defend the body against infection. They form in the bone marrow and consist of several different types and sub-types. On average, a healthy adult has between 4,000 and 11,000 white cells per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood. A high WBC count often means that an infection is present in the body, while a low number can mean that a specific disease or drug has impaired the bone marrow's ability to produce new cells. Most people with HIV have WBC counts at the low normal end of the range. Differential White Blood Cell Count: The differential is a count of the number or percentage of WBCs made up by each major type of WBC. Neutrophils (also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMNs, or poly's for short) are WBCs that fight most bacterial infections. The neutrophil count may be lowered by certain medications used by people with HIV, such as Retrovir (AZT) and Cytovene (ganciclovir). If the neutrophil count becomes too low, there is an increased risk of bacterial infections. Lymphocytes are the key WBCs involved in immune responses and are often lowered by HIV infection. Monocytes play important roles in fighting certain types of infections by maturing into macrophages that can ingest bacteria and cellular debris. Eosinophils are involved in fighting certain parasitic infections and are sometimes elevated due to allergic reactions. The function of basophils is not well understood. Answered by Alexander Kolberg 1 year ago.

A low WBC is often a sign of low immune resistance. Very low WBCs (below 3,000) are often seen in AIDS Answered by Lilla Cuthbertson 1 year ago.

Please go to www.cdc.gov for factual HIV information, vs. crackpot conspiracy nonsense that will kill innocent people. Answered by Kizzie Gilboy 1 year ago.


Cytofrene treatment yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy?
for virus c treatment bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb Asked by Sonny Wentworth 1 year ago.

Do you mean CYTOVENE??? If so, CYTOVENE-IV is indicated for the treatment of CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients, including patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). CYTOVENE-IV is also indicated for the prevention of CMV disease in transplant recipients at risk for CMV disease (Cytomegalovirus). Also, Cytovene capsules are indicated for the prevention of CMV disease in solid organ transplant recipients and in individuals with advanced HIV infection at risk for developing CMV disease. CYTOVENE capsules are also indicated as an alternative to the intravenous formulation for maintenance treatment of CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients, including patients with AIDS, in whom retinitis is stable following appropriate induction therapy and for whom the risk of more rapid progression is balanced by the benefit associated with avoiding daily IV infusions. Answered by Scott Ibbotson 1 year ago.

im simply brooding about how lengthy you had been absent, and why you didnt have near peers or acquaintances who would have contacted you, or why couldnt gwen herself have contacted you at a few factor earlier than she acquired to in poor health to take action? additionally, why did this neighbor deliver gwen's household's deal with to the hospice--did gwen inform them to? why didnt gwen ask that you simply be contacted as a substitute? had been you someplace in which you had been incommunicado? this tale sounds stuffed with holes to me. but when its a real account, then sure, via all method that is horrid and abominable therapy of a daughter. Answered by Jerrod Auyon 1 year ago.


Can a single adult make get medicaid? How? whats the criteria?
He has no insurance and really needs some health care. He has always worked in the past but is out of work right now due to health problems. Asked by Gala Sumbry 1 year ago.

Honestly single women have an easier time gettin medicaid...but it is always worth a try it is all based on imcome and family size pretty much Answered by Mohammed Nonroe 1 year ago.


Are there cures for ecephilitis...?
Asked by Napoleon Keever 1 year ago.

Definition Encephalitis is an inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the brain, usually caused by infections. See also meningitis. Treatment Treatment for mild cases mainly consists of rest and a healthy diet, including plenty of liquids, to let your immune system fight the virus. Using acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) can relieve headaches and fever. Anti-inflammatory drugs can help reduce swelling and pressure within your skull. If you're having seizures, your doctor may prescribe an anticonvulsant medication. In some cases, you may also need physical and speech therapy. Encephalitis can be difficult to treat because the viruses that cause the disease generally don't respond to medications. However, some viruses, particularly the herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus, respond to antiviral drugs such as acyclovir (Zovirax). If you have one of these kinds of virus-induced encephalitis, your doctor will likely start treatment with acyclovir immediately. It's usually administered intravenously while you're in the hospital for at least 10 days. Another antiviral that's sometimes used is ganciclovir (Cytovene). Scientists are currently investigating interferon therapy — a type of immune cell therapy — as a treatment for encephalitis caused by the St. Louis and West Nile viruses. A pilot study of the treatment showed that patients who received the therapy recovered better than those who didn't receive therapy. However, more studies are needed before the treatment can be approved for these illnesses. Causes, incidence, and risk factors Encephalitis is most often caused by a viral infection, and many types of viruses may cause it. Exposure to viruses can occur through insect bites, food or drink contamination, inhalation of respiratory droplets from an infected person, or skin contact. In rural areas, arboviruses -- carried by mosquitoes or ticks, or accidentally ingested -- are the most common cause. In urban areas, enteroviruses are most common, including coxsackievirus, poliovirus, and echovirus. Other causes include herpes simplex infection, varicella (chickenpox or shingles), measles, mumps, rubella, adenovirus, rabies, West Nile virus, and extremely rarely, vaccinations. Once the virus has entered the bloodstream, it may localize in the brain, causing inflammation of brain tissue and surrounding membranes. White blood cells invade the brain tissue as they try to fight off the infection. The brain tissue swells (cerebral edema), which may cause destruction of nerve cells, bleeding within the brain (intracerebral hemorrhage), and brain damage. Encephalitis is uncommon. It affects approximately 1,500 people per year in the U.S. The elderly and infants are more vulnerable and may have a more severe course of the disease. Symptoms Fever Headache Vomiting Light-sensitivity of the eyes Stiff neck and back (occasionally) Confusion, disorientation Drowsiness Clumsiness, unsteady gait Irritability or poor temper control Emergency symptoms: Loss of consciousness, poor responsiveness, stupor, coma Seizures Muscle weakness or paralysis Sudden onset of: Memory loss (amnesia), impaired short-term memory or impaired long-term memory "Flat" mood or lack of discernible mood, or mood inappropriate for the situation Diminished interest in daily activities Inflexibility, extreme self-centeredness, indecisiveness, or withdrawal from social interaction Impaired judgment Signs and tests Various symptoms resembling meningitis may be present. An examination may show signs of meningeal irritation (especially neck stiffness), increased intracranial pressure, or other neurologic symptoms such as muscle weakness, mental confusion, speech problems, and abnormal reflexes. The patient may have a skin rash, mouth ulcers, and signs of involvement of other organs such as the liver and lungs. A lumbar puncture test and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination may show clear fluid, high pressure, high white blood cell count and protein levels -- indications of inflammation. Blood may be present in the CSF. Sometimes the virus can be detected in CSF, blood, or urine through a laboratory test called viral culture. However, this test is cumbersome and rarely useful. In some cases, viral PCR (polymerase chain reaction), a test able to detect very tiny amounts of viral DNA) may identify the virus. Health care providers also rely on serology tests (serologies detect some proteins called antibodies, which are produced in response to an specific virus) to provide evidence of viral infection. An EEG (a test of the electrical activity of the brain) may provide indirect clues for the diagnosis of encephalitis. Some EEG wave patterns may suggest a seizure disorder, or point to a specific virus as cause of the infection. Certain EEG wave patterns can suggest encephalitis due to herpes, for instance. A brain MRI, which provides high-quality pictures of the brain, or a CAT scan of the head may be used to determine internal bleeding or focal areas of brain inflammation. Answered by Kellee Dahlhauser 1 year ago.


What do you do when after valve replacement encephalitis is present?
and on a ventilator for 3months after. Asked by Conception Bedell 1 year ago.

Encephalitis (en-sef-uh-LI-tis) is inflammation of the brain. Viral infections are the most common cause of the condition. Encephalitis can cause flu-like symptoms, such as a fever or severe headache, as well as confused thinking, seizures, or problems with senses or movement. Many cases of encephalitis may go unnoticed because they result in only mild flu-like symptoms or even no symptoms. Severe cases of encephalitis, while relatively rare, can be life-threatening. Because the course of any single case of encephalitis is relatively unpredictable, it's important to get a timely diagnosis and treatment. >>Treatment for mild cases mainly consists of: Bed rest Plenty of fluids Anti-inflammatory drugs — such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, others) — to relieve headaches and fever. Antiviral drugs More-serious cases of encephalitis usually require aggressive antiviral treatments. Antiviral drugs commonly used to treat encephalitis include: Acyclovir (Zovirax) Ganciclovir (Cytovene) Some viruses, such as insect-borne viruses, don't respond to these treatments. However, because the specific virus causing the infection may not be identified immediately or at all, treatment with acyclovir is often begun immediately. This drug can be effective against the herpes simplex virus, which can result in significant complications or death when not treated promptly. Side effects of the antiviral drugs may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, and muscle or joint soreness or pain. Rare serious problems may include abnormalities in kidney or liver function or suppression of bone marrow activity. Appropriate tests are used to monitor for serious adverse effects. Supportive care Additional supportive care also is needed in the hospital for people with severe encephalitis. The care may include: Breathing assistance, as well as careful monitoring of breathing and heart function Intravenous fluids to ensure proper hydration and appropriate levels of essential minerals Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as corticosteroids, to help reduce swelling and pressure within the skull Anticonvulsant medications, such as phenytoin (Dilantin), to stop or prevent seizures. Follow-up therapy After the initial illness, it may be necessary to receive additional therapy depending on the type and severity of complications. This therapy may include: Physical therapy to improve strength, flexibility, balance, motor coordination and mobility Occupational therapy to develop everyday skills and to use adaptive products that help with everyday activities Speech therapy to relearn muscle control and coordination to produce speech Psychotherapy to learn coping strategies and new behavioral skills to improve mood disorders or address personality changes — with medication management if necessary. Answered by Tawanna Sierer 1 year ago.


Where can I go to get individual health insurance with a pre-existing condition? And please don't say BCBS.
My daughter had non-Hodgkins lymphoma about 3 years ago. When she applied at Blue Cross Blue Shield they said no. Where can she go? Thanks. Asked by Adena Patteson 1 year ago.

How old is your daughter? If she's under 18, some states offer free health care called CHIP. Answered by Chanelle Garczynski 1 year ago.


Do HIV+ people have typically lower wbc numbers?
Asked by Ruth Blanchard 1 year ago.

White Blood Cell (WBC) Count: White blood cells, also called leukocytes, defend the body against infection. They form in the bone marrow and consist of several different types and sub-types. On average, a healthy adult has between 4,000 and 11,000 white cells per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood. A high WBC count often means that an infection is present in the body, while a low number can mean that a specific disease or drug has impaired the bone marrow's ability to produce new cells. Most people with HIV have WBC counts at the low normal end of the range. Differential White Blood Cell Count: The differential is a count of the number or percentage of WBCs made up by each major type of WBC. Neutrophils (also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMNs, or poly's for short) are WBCs that fight most bacterial infections. The neutrophil count may be lowered by certain medications used by people with HIV, such as Retrovir (AZT) and Cytovene (ganciclovir). If the neutrophil count becomes too low, there is an increased risk of bacterial infections. Lymphocytes are the key WBCs involved in immune responses and are often lowered by HIV infection. Monocytes play important roles in fighting certain types of infections by maturing into macrophages that can ingest bacteria and cellular debris. Eosinophils are involved in fighting certain parasitic infections and are sometimes elevated due to allergic reactions. The function of basophils is not well understood. Answered by Paola Teats 1 year ago.

A low WBC is often a sign of low immune resistance. Very low WBCs (below 3,000) are often seen in AIDS Answered by Frederica Schlenger 1 year ago.

Please go to www.cdc.gov for factual HIV information, vs. crackpot conspiracy nonsense that will kill innocent people. Answered by Gustavo Wittenberg 1 year ago.


Cytofrene treatment yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy?
for virus c treatment bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb Asked by Sherita Lescarbeau 1 year ago.

Do you mean CYTOVENE??? If so, CYTOVENE-IV is indicated for the treatment of CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients, including patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). CYTOVENE-IV is also indicated for the prevention of CMV disease in transplant recipients at risk for CMV disease (Cytomegalovirus). Also, Cytovene capsules are indicated for the prevention of CMV disease in solid organ transplant recipients and in individuals with advanced HIV infection at risk for developing CMV disease. CYTOVENE capsules are also indicated as an alternative to the intravenous formulation for maintenance treatment of CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients, including patients with AIDS, in whom retinitis is stable following appropriate induction therapy and for whom the risk of more rapid progression is balanced by the benefit associated with avoiding daily IV infusions. Answered by Kip Liwanag 1 year ago.

im simply brooding about how lengthy you had been absent, and why you didnt have near peers or acquaintances who would have contacted you, or why couldnt gwen herself have contacted you at a few factor earlier than she acquired to in poor health to take action? additionally, why did this neighbor deliver gwen's household's deal with to the hospice--did gwen inform them to? why didnt gwen ask that you simply be contacted as a substitute? had been you someplace in which you had been incommunicado? this tale sounds stuffed with holes to me. but when its a real account, then sure, via all method that is horrid and abominable therapy of a daughter. Answered by Tawanda Grumbine 1 year ago.


Can a single adult make get medicaid? How? whats the criteria?
He has no insurance and really needs some health care. He has always worked in the past but is out of work right now due to health problems. Asked by Stasia Pana 1 year ago.

Honestly single women have an easier time gettin medicaid...but it is always worth a try it is all based on imcome and family size pretty much Answered by Augustina Ovard 1 year ago.


Are there cures for ecephilitis...?
Asked by Tamika Clarence 1 year ago.

Definition Encephalitis is an inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the brain, usually caused by infections. See also meningitis. Treatment Treatment for mild cases mainly consists of rest and a healthy diet, including plenty of liquids, to let your immune system fight the virus. Using acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) can relieve headaches and fever. Anti-inflammatory drugs can help reduce swelling and pressure within your skull. If you're having seizures, your doctor may prescribe an anticonvulsant medication. In some cases, you may also need physical and speech therapy. Encephalitis can be difficult to treat because the viruses that cause the disease generally don't respond to medications. However, some viruses, particularly the herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus, respond to antiviral drugs such as acyclovir (Zovirax). If you have one of these kinds of virus-induced encephalitis, your doctor will likely start treatment with acyclovir immediately. It's usually administered intravenously while you're in the hospital for at least 10 days. Another antiviral that's sometimes used is ganciclovir (Cytovene). Scientists are currently investigating interferon therapy — a type of immune cell therapy — as a treatment for encephalitis caused by the St. Louis and West Nile viruses. A pilot study of the treatment showed that patients who received the therapy recovered better than those who didn't receive therapy. However, more studies are needed before the treatment can be approved for these illnesses. Causes, incidence, and risk factors Encephalitis is most often caused by a viral infection, and many types of viruses may cause it. Exposure to viruses can occur through insect bites, food or drink contamination, inhalation of respiratory droplets from an infected person, or skin contact. In rural areas, arboviruses -- carried by mosquitoes or ticks, or accidentally ingested -- are the most common cause. In urban areas, enteroviruses are most common, including coxsackievirus, poliovirus, and echovirus. Other causes include herpes simplex infection, varicella (chickenpox or shingles), measles, mumps, rubella, adenovirus, rabies, West Nile virus, and extremely rarely, vaccinations. Once the virus has entered the bloodstream, it may localize in the brain, causing inflammation of brain tissue and surrounding membranes. White blood cells invade the brain tissue as they try to fight off the infection. The brain tissue swells (cerebral edema), which may cause destruction of nerve cells, bleeding within the brain (intracerebral hemorrhage), and brain damage. Encephalitis is uncommon. It affects approximately 1,500 people per year in the U.S. The elderly and infants are more vulnerable and may have a more severe course of the disease. Symptoms Fever Headache Vomiting Light-sensitivity of the eyes Stiff neck and back (occasionally) Confusion, disorientation Drowsiness Clumsiness, unsteady gait Irritability or poor temper control Emergency symptoms: Loss of consciousness, poor responsiveness, stupor, coma Seizures Muscle weakness or paralysis Sudden onset of: Memory loss (amnesia), impaired short-term memory or impaired long-term memory "Flat" mood or lack of discernible mood, or mood inappropriate for the situation Diminished interest in daily activities Inflexibility, extreme self-centeredness, indecisiveness, or withdrawal from social interaction Impaired judgment Signs and tests Various symptoms resembling meningitis may be present. An examination may show signs of meningeal irritation (especially neck stiffness), increased intracranial pressure, or other neurologic symptoms such as muscle weakness, mental confusion, speech problems, and abnormal reflexes. The patient may have a skin rash, mouth ulcers, and signs of involvement of other organs such as the liver and lungs. A lumbar puncture test and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination may show clear fluid, high pressure, high white blood cell count and protein levels -- indications of inflammation. Blood may be present in the CSF. Sometimes the virus can be detected in CSF, blood, or urine through a laboratory test called viral culture. However, this test is cumbersome and rarely useful. In some cases, viral PCR (polymerase chain reaction), a test able to detect very tiny amounts of viral DNA) may identify the virus. Health care providers also rely on serology tests (serologies detect some proteins called antibodies, which are produced in response to an specific virus) to provide evidence of viral infection. An EEG (a test of the electrical activity of the brain) may provide indirect clues for the diagnosis of encephalitis. Some EEG wave patterns may suggest a seizure disorder, or point to a specific virus as cause of the infection. Certain EEG wave patterns can suggest encephalitis due to herpes, for instance. A brain MRI, which provides high-quality pictures of the brain, or a CAT scan of the head may be used to determine internal bleeding or focal areas of brain inflammation. Answered by Trinidad Conduff 1 year ago.


What do you do when after valve replacement encephalitis is present?
and on a ventilator for 3months after. Asked by Heide Teas 1 year ago.

Encephalitis (en-sef-uh-LI-tis) is inflammation of the brain. Viral infections are the most common cause of the condition. Encephalitis can cause flu-like symptoms, such as a fever or severe headache, as well as confused thinking, seizures, or problems with senses or movement. Many cases of encephalitis may go unnoticed because they result in only mild flu-like symptoms or even no symptoms. Severe cases of encephalitis, while relatively rare, can be life-threatening. Because the course of any single case of encephalitis is relatively unpredictable, it's important to get a timely diagnosis and treatment. >>Treatment for mild cases mainly consists of: Bed rest Plenty of fluids Anti-inflammatory drugs — such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, others) — to relieve headaches and fever. Antiviral drugs More-serious cases of encephalitis usually require aggressive antiviral treatments. Antiviral drugs commonly used to treat encephalitis include: Acyclovir (Zovirax) Ganciclovir (Cytovene) Some viruses, such as insect-borne viruses, don't respond to these treatments. However, because the specific virus causing the infection may not be identified immediately or at all, treatment with acyclovir is often begun immediately. This drug can be effective against the herpes simplex virus, which can result in significant complications or death when not treated promptly. Side effects of the antiviral drugs may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, and muscle or joint soreness or pain. Rare serious problems may include abnormalities in kidney or liver function or suppression of bone marrow activity. Appropriate tests are used to monitor for serious adverse effects. Supportive care Additional supportive care also is needed in the hospital for people with severe encephalitis. The care may include: Breathing assistance, as well as careful monitoring of breathing and heart function Intravenous fluids to ensure proper hydration and appropriate levels of essential minerals Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as corticosteroids, to help reduce swelling and pressure within the skull Anticonvulsant medications, such as phenytoin (Dilantin), to stop or prevent seizures. Follow-up therapy After the initial illness, it may be necessary to receive additional therapy depending on the type and severity of complications. This therapy may include: Physical therapy to improve strength, flexibility, balance, motor coordination and mobility Occupational therapy to develop everyday skills and to use adaptive products that help with everyday activities Speech therapy to relearn muscle control and coordination to produce speech Psychotherapy to learn coping strategies and new behavioral skills to improve mood disorders or address personality changes — with medication management if necessary. Answered by Marquitta Heery 1 year ago.


Where can I go to get individual health insurance with a pre-existing condition? And please don't say BCBS.
My daughter had non-Hodgkins lymphoma about 3 years ago. When she applied at Blue Cross Blue Shield they said no. Where can she go? Thanks. Asked by Shanti Culverson 1 year ago.

How old is your daughter? If she's under 18, some states offer free health care called CHIP. Answered by Era Getson 1 year ago.


Do HIV+ people have typically lower wbc numbers?
Asked by Willa Doege 1 year ago.

White Blood Cell (WBC) Count: White blood cells, also called leukocytes, defend the body against infection. They form in the bone marrow and consist of several different types and sub-types. On average, a healthy adult has between 4,000 and 11,000 white cells per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood. A high WBC count often means that an infection is present in the body, while a low number can mean that a specific disease or drug has impaired the bone marrow's ability to produce new cells. Most people with HIV have WBC counts at the low normal end of the range. Differential White Blood Cell Count: The differential is a count of the number or percentage of WBCs made up by each major type of WBC. Neutrophils (also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMNs, or poly's for short) are WBCs that fight most bacterial infections. The neutrophil count may be lowered by certain medications used by people with HIV, such as Retrovir (AZT) and Cytovene (ganciclovir). If the neutrophil count becomes too low, there is an increased risk of bacterial infections. Lymphocytes are the key WBCs involved in immune responses and are often lowered by HIV infection. Monocytes play important roles in fighting certain types of infections by maturing into macrophages that can ingest bacteria and cellular debris. Eosinophils are involved in fighting certain parasitic infections and are sometimes elevated due to allergic reactions. The function of basophils is not well understood. Answered by Bettye Arriola 1 year ago.

A low WBC is often a sign of low immune resistance. Very low WBCs (below 3,000) are often seen in AIDS Answered by Sofia Pasquarella 1 year ago.

Please go to www.cdc.gov for factual HIV information, vs. crackpot conspiracy nonsense that will kill innocent people. Answered by Lennie Baseley 1 year ago.


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