Describe exactly how the anticancer drug, Cisplatin®, was discovered.?
Asked by Kellye Leialoha 1 year ago.
HISTORY OF CISPLATIN- Cisplatin is one of a number of platinum coordination complexes with antitumour activity. The potential of this compound as an antitumour agent was recognised through an observation made by Barnett Rosenberg and co-workers. Their study had been designed to explore the possible effects of an electric field on the growth of Eschericia coli. They observed the bacteria growing in the form of long filaments, but unexpectedly, they ceased to divide. Months of rigorous equipment checks and testing ensued, to try and explain this phenomenon. It was not until a year later that the cause of the inhibition of bacterial division was pinpointed to an electrolysis product of the platinum electrode ¤. This accidental discovery soon initiated a series of investigations and studies into the effects of platinum compounds and cell division. In 1970, further studies performed by Rosenburg and his colleagues revealed that these compounds displayed significant antitumour activity and demonstrated that diamminedichloroplatinum(II), specifically the cis isomer, was extremely effective against sarcoma 180 and L1210 leukemia in mice. The efficacy of the platinum complex as an anticancer agent has now been established in a variety of animal tumour models and in human cancer. Although a number of platinum complexes have since been developed (eg., oxaliplatin and carboplatin), and shown to have antitumour properties, we will be focusing most of our attention on cisplatin. Cisplatin or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug used to treat various types of cancers, including sarcomas, some carcinomas (e.g. small cell lung cancer and ovarian cancer), lymphomas and germ cell tumors. It was the first member of its class, which now also includes carboplatin and oxaliplatin. As a compound cisplatin was first described by M. Peyrone in 1845 (known as Peyrone's salt). The structure was elucidated by Alfred Werner in 1893. It was rediscovered in the 1960s by Rosenberg and van Campet al, who discovered that electrolysis products from a platinum electrode inhibited mitosis in Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. The bacteria grow to 300 times their normal length but cell division fails. In the 1970s, a series of experiments were conducted at Michigan State University to test the effects the cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), along with other platinum coordination complexes, on sarcomas artificially implanted in rats. This study found that cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) was the most effective out of this group, which started the medicinal career of cisplatin-. Answered by Josefine Litka 1 year ago.
As a compound cisplatin was first described by M. Peyrone in 1845 (known as Peyrone's salt). The structure was elucidated by Alfred Werner in 1893. It was rediscovered in the 1960s by Barnett Rosenberg and van Campet al, who discovered that electrolysis products from a platinum electrode inhibited mitosis in Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. The bacteria grow to 300 times their normal length but cell division fails. In the 1970s, a series of experiments were conducted at Michigan State University to test the effects the cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), along with other platinum coordination complexes, on sarcomas artificially implanted in rats. This study found that cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) was the most effective out of this group, which started the medicinal career of cisplatin. Approved for clinical use by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1978, it revolutionized the treatment of certain cancers. Detailed studies on its molecular mechanism of action, using a variety of spectrocopic methods including X-ray, NMR and other physico-chemical methods, revealed its ability to form irreversible crosslinks with bases in DNA. Answered by Jon Comley 1 year ago.
What's the Chemical formula for Cisplatin ?
In one Chemistry textbook I have. There are 2 different formulas. On the same page. On the same question (strange). The first one is written; Pt2(NH3)2C12. The other one is written; Pt2(NH3)2Cl2.The first one has Carbon in it. The second one has Chlorine.The question; The compund cisplatin,Pt(NH3)2C12,has been...
Asked by Constance Fugere 1 year ago.
In one Chemistry textbook I have. There are 2 different formulas. On the same page. On the same question (strange). The first one is written; Pt2(NH3)2C12. The other one is written; Pt2(NH3)2Cl2.The first one has Carbon in it. The second one has Chlorine. The question; The compund cisplatin,Pt(NH3)2C12,has been shown to be an anti tumor agent. A.Calculate the elemental % composition by mass of cisplatin ? B.Cisplatin is synthesiszed as follows; K2PtCl4+2NH3= Pt(NHs)2+2KCl.... Answered by Rosenda Rochester 1 year ago.
cisplatin is Pt2(NH3)2Cl2 A. just get the molecular mass (MM) of the cisplatin then use the atomic mass of each element to get the %element composition... account the number of each element in the compound.... the MM of Pt2(NH3)2Cl2 is 495.062 g/mol % Pt = (((2moles Pt/1molPt2(NH3)2Cl2)* (195.09g/mol)Pt) / 495.062 g/mol Pt2(NH3)2Cl2)*100 = 78.8 % Pt % N = (((2moles N/1molPt2(NH3)2Cl2)(14.007g/mol)N) / 495.062 g/mol Pt2(NH3)2Cl2)*100 = 5.7 % N % Cl = (((2moles Cl/1molPt2(NH3)2Cl2)(35.45g/mol)Cl) / 495.062 g/mol Pt2(NH3)2Cl2)*100 = 14.3% Cl % H = (((6moles N/1molPt2(NH3)2Cl2)(1.008g/mol)H) / 495.062 g/mol Pt2(NH3)2Cl2)*100 = 1.2% H best answer? Answered by Sam Stolt 1 year ago.
Cisplatin Formula Answered by Twyla Rabbe 1 year ago.
This Site Might Help You. RE: What's the Chemical formula for Cisplatin ? In one Chemistry textbook I have. There are 2 different formulas. On the same page. On the same question (strange). The first one is written; Pt2(NH3)2C12. The other one is written; Pt2(NH3)2Cl2.The first one has Carbon in it. The second one has Chlorine. The question; The compund... Answered by Sherell Nykiel 1 year ago.
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The formula is Pt(NH3)2Cl2...no carbon. Answered by Rosanna Sovich 1 year ago.
The compound cisplatin, Pt(NH3)2C122?
first, how to calculate the elemental percent composition by mass of cisplatin. also, cisplatin is synthesized as follows: K2PtCl4(aq)+2NH3(aq)=Pt(NH3)2Cl2(s)+2K... What mass of cisplatin can be made from 100 g of K2PtCl4 and sufficient NH3? what mass of KCl is also produced
Asked by Trinidad Tiffin 1 year ago.
1. Elemental percent composition by mass of cisplatin: Standard atomic weight Platinum = 195.09 g/mol−1 Standard atomic weight Potassium = 39.10 g/mol−1 Standard atomic weight Chlorine = 35.45 g/mol−1 Standard atomic weight Hydrogen = 1.00 g/mol−1 Standard atomic weight Nitrogen = 14.00 g/mol−1 Mol. mass cisplatin (H6Cl2N2Pt) = 300.05 g/mol %Platinum = 195.09 ÷ 300.05 x 100 = 65.02% % Chlorine = (35.45x2) ÷ 300.05 x 100 =23.63% % Nitrogen = (2x14) ÷ 300.05 x 100 = 9.33% % Hydrogen = (6x1) ÷ 300.05 x 100 = 2.00% 2. Mass of cisplatin can be made from 100 g of K2PtCl4 Reaction: K2PtCl4(aq) + 2NH3(aq) = Pt(NH3)2Cl2(s) + 2KCl(aq) Mol. mass potassium tetrachloroplatinate(II) (K2PtCl4) = 415.09 g/mol 100 g of K2PtCl4 = 100 ÷ 415.09 mole Since 1 mole K2PtCl4 produces 1 mole cisplatin Mass of cisplatin produced = (100 ÷ 415.09) x 300.05 g = 72.29g 3. Mol. mass potassium chloride (KCl) = 74.55 g/mol Since 1 mole K2PtCl4 produces 2 mole KCl Mass of KCl produced = (100 ÷ 415.09) x 74.55 x 2 g = 35.92g Answered by Donita Ruiloba 1 year ago.
i have been browsing online more than three hours today seeking the answers to the same question, yet I haven't found any interesting debate like this. It's pretty worth enough for me. Answered by Allyn Esoimeme 1 year ago.
Was asking myself the same thing Answered by Judy Biggerstaff 1 year ago.
Could someone help me write a balanced equation in order to make cisplatin and a separate one for carboplatin?
Cisplatin H_6 C_12 N_2 Pt Carboplatin C_6 H_12 N_2 O_4 Pt The last stretch of an AP chemistry paper.
Asked by Bette Litaker 1 year ago.
This is a really popular synthesis. I only know how to do cisplatin because that's all we covered when I took inorganic. It is not possible to draw the proper cis and trans structures on here, so I will just talk you through it. But I'm sure if you google image it or something there will be a diagram somewhere describing what I'm saying. Cisplatin: So you're going to use K2[PtCl4] as your starting material. Using potassium iodide as a solvent (you have to use potassium iodide and not potassium chloride or potassium bromide. Iodide is the only one that will ensure the cis isomer), you form K2[PtI4]. From here, you add 2 equivalents of ammonia. This will form PtI2(NH3)2 (this is a structure that is hard to describe. You have your Pt center, the two left molecules are I and the two right are NH3). You will now add 2 equivalents of Silver(I) Nitrate. This will replace you two I with two waters (it literally will have two H2O's bound to it). Then to finish it all off, you put this in a KCl solvent (when I mention solvents in this answer, it means they are in excess). You have bi-products in most of the steps, but this was a while ago so I can't remember them exactly. Like I said, you can probably google image this to get a picture perspective. I'm sorry I can't help with the other one, but I wish you luck! Answered by Hyacinth Pietrzak 1 year ago.
Ain't nobody got time for that. Answered by Lydia Mellekas 1 year ago.
Why cant Cisplatin form a tetrahedral 3d structure?
I know that [Pt(NH3)2CL2] can form cis and trans complexes. But why does it form a square planar 3d shape, and not a tetrahedral? Is it to do with more than 1 type of ligand involved?
Asked by Marianna Lenser 1 year ago.
Cisplatin is a sixteen-electron complex: platinum starts with eight d electrons and each ligand contributes an extra two, for a total of sixteen. Most of the time, sixteen-electron complexes assume the square planar configuration instead of the tetrahedral one (that is, when there are four ligands.) Answered by Keely Ginn 1 year ago.
How many moles of hydrogen are in a 1 mole of cisplatin?
:D Pleaseeeee help me
Asked by Cathrine Schmatz 1 year ago.
cisplatin = H6Cl2N2Pt So there are 6 moles of H in each mole of cisplatin. Answered by Estella Ruedas 1 year ago.
Synthesis of cisplatin?
I would like to know the actual experiments and steps used to create cisplatin. It's for a school chemistry assignment so not too complicated or advanced. Thanks.
Asked by Lucille Danneman 1 year ago.
there really isn't much to find on the synthesis of cisplatin. except for patents on new methods of making analogs for the drug. see below Pt(NH3)2Cl2 can be made by reacting (NH4)2PtCl4 with NH3. K2PtCl4 + KI (excess) --> PtI4 + 4 KCl PtI4 + 2 NH3 --> I2Pt(NH3)2 + 2 KI I2Pt(NH3)2 + 2 AgNO3 --> [(H2O)2Pt(NH3)2](NO3)2 + 2 AgI [(H2O)2Pt(NH3)2](NO3)2 + KCl (excess) --> Cl2Pt(NH3)2 (cisplatin) + 2 KNO3 Answered by Kathryne Emberson 1 year ago.
Cisplatin (Platinol) question?
I know that c. is not the answer since Reglan is usually given 30 minutes prior to cisplatin.
Asked by Ludivina Pomrenke 1 year ago.
if I'm receiving cisplatin (Platinol) intravenous chemotherapy, which of the following prescriptions would be questioned? a. a bolus dose of furosemide b. intravenous fluids at 150 cc per hour c. Reglan 30 to 60 minutes prior to cisplatin d. a follow-up appointment for a bone marrow test in 2 weeks thank you Answered by Lester Prante 1 year ago.
The answer is (b). You should have intravenous fluids of minimum of 100 to 150 cc per hour before and while administrating Cisplatin for Cancer Chemotheraphy. This is a must. Before and while receiving cisplatin large volumes of intravenous fluids are given to keep the kidneys flushed with water. If patients have severe kidney problems the physician will either not use cisplatin or decrease the dose being used.Cisplatin may cause the body to waste normal electrolytes that circulate in the body (potassium, magnesium, phosphate, sodium, calcium) resulting in low levels of these electrolytes. For all these reasons enough quantity offluids should be given.- Answered by Dusti Bozinovich 1 year ago.