Application Information

This drug has been submitted to the FDA under the reference 011559/001.

Names and composition

"BREVITAL SODIUM" is the commercial name of a drug composed of METHOHEXITAL SODIUM.

Forms

ApplId/ProductId Drug name Active ingredient Form Strenght
011559/001 BREVITAL SODIUM METHOHEXITAL SODIUM INJECTABLE/INJECTION 500MG per VIAL
011559/002 BREVITAL SODIUM METHOHEXITAL SODIUM INJECTABLE/INJECTION 2.5GM per VIAL
011559/003 BREVITAL SODIUM METHOHEXITAL SODIUM INJECTABLE/INJECTION 5GM per VIAL
011559/004 BREVITAL SODIUM METHOHEXITAL SODIUM INJECTABLE/INJECTION 200MG per VIAL

Similar Active Ingredient

ApplId/ProductId Drug name Active ingredient Form Strenght
011559/001 BREVITAL SODIUM METHOHEXITAL SODIUM INJECTABLE/INJECTION 500MG per VIAL
011559/002 BREVITAL SODIUM METHOHEXITAL SODIUM INJECTABLE/INJECTION 2.5GM per VIAL
011559/003 BREVITAL SODIUM METHOHEXITAL SODIUM INJECTABLE/INJECTION 5GM per VIAL
011559/004 BREVITAL SODIUM METHOHEXITAL SODIUM INJECTABLE/INJECTION 200MG per VIAL

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Answered questions

Why use sodium pentothal instead of propofol?
I received ECT a few months ago, and each time they used pentothal for the induction of anaesthesia, followed by succinylcholine for a muscle relaxant. I'm curious why they would use this instead of propofol - I thought it was the standard now, having mostly replaced pentothal. Asked by Marty Medick 1 year ago.

We don't use pentothal, we use Brevital (methohexital). It lowers the seizure threshold, so the ECT works. Propofol and pentothal raise the seizure threshold. We actually use pentothal to STOP seizures. Answered by Kristofer Pocock 1 year ago.

Propofol "is the most commonly used parenteral anesthetic in the United States". From the little that I have just read about the two drugs I can point out a few reasons why a doctor would prefer sodium thiopental(Pentothal) over propofol, besides the doctor's previous experience: Propofol, being not water soluble, is made into an emulsion with the aid of egg protein. although the literature states that anaphylactoid reactions are about the same as thiopental I find that hard to believe. Propofol emulsions also promote bacterial growth, you can see why, and this has resulted in "serious patient infections". Thiopental also has a proven protection for the brain from cerebral ischemia where propofol does not. Propopol causes pain on injection, whereas thiopental does not. Propofol does have ant-nausea effects, thiopental does not, and causes less bronkospasm than thiopental (I don't believe this). I suspect that the statistics do not reflect repeated dosing from several surgeries. Given egg phosphatide (in Propofol) over and over by IV seems to me would make allergic reactions become more likely. Answered by Quincy Seeley 1 year ago.

Please find out how your doc got pentothal into the USA. We do not make it any more and other countries refuse to send it to the USA because we use it for executions. Answered by Renato Hollenberg 1 year ago.


Discuss the possibilities of administering sodium pentobarbitone via intrarectal, inhalation and topical route
Asked by Mistie Hards 1 year ago.

won't get absorbed in any of the above routes- it must be given IV. there are some barbiturates that can be administered without an IV- for instance, you can give brevital per rectum. Answered by Jon Meitz 1 year ago.


What is the best OD killer?
Kristina...gun or jumping? This question is not about suicide really. Sorry if it seems that way but this is about drugs and the body's reaction... Asked by Raylene Pedeare 1 year ago.

READ> No, I am not a little emo idiot. I just like knowing random crazy things and I have an interest about things with the body and things that would suit me to be a doctor. I am just curious to what the best overdose killing method is. A really quick one too. I have been researching and household products like Tylenol seems to fail. But wouldn't a massive mixture of something would do the trick? What would the killing mixture be? (you can also add in the details like the chemical effects and the whole process, more knowledge, the better :D) Honestly idk why these topics interest me. Just seem exciting. I love science/health stuff. I am totally going to be a doctor ;) haha So people of Yahoo Answers, what is the most extraordinary, quick killing OD method? Answered by Ollie Baldus 1 year ago.

That is a very simple question to answer, one class of drugs are unquestionably not only externally dangerous but also not painful and have no specific "antidote" like opioids (morphine, heroin) to counteract their effects. I am talking about barbiturates, a class of drugs used primarily as sedatives, hypnotics, and aneastetics. Barbiturates include Seconal (secobarbital), Nembutal (pentobarbital), Luminal (phenobarbital), Sodium Pentothal (sodium thiopental), Butisol (butabarbital), Amytal (amobarbital), Mebaral (mephobarbital), Oramon (aprobarbital), Brevital (methohexital), and butalbital. Firstly let me say the reason I am willing to tell you about the danger of these drugs is because 1) it is well known and with a bit of study you could find it out, 2) there is no evidence that providing information increases the risk of a person attempting or completing suicide, 3) barbiturates are rarely used, highly inaccessible since most are no longer made do to lack of demand. There are a few barbiturates in particular Seconal (secobarbital), Nembutal (phenobarbital), and Sodium Pentothal (sodium thiopental) that are particularly dangerous. A now discontinued (at least in most countries) drug called Tuinal (secobarbital/amobarbital) showed to be particularly dangerous. In most countries the pill form of almost all barbiturates have been taken off the market, a few barbiturates (typically phenobarbital, thiopental, amobarbital, and methohexital) are still used in hospital and other medical facilities however if they are available it is typically only for IV use and not used outside of hospital. The major exception is for the drug phenobarbital, a much safer barbiturate because it is absorbed slowly and it has less capacity to produce respiratory depression. In The United States, unless medications have very recently changed (unlikely) phenobarbital (Luminal), mephobarbital aka methylphenobarbital (Mebaral), secobarbital (Seconal), and butabarbital (Butisol) are still available as are combination analgesics like Fiorinal and Fioricet which contain the barbiturate butalbital along with caffeine, with acetaminophen (in Fioricet) or with Aspirin (in Fiorinal), and there is also a from of both drugs that also has codeine. Fioricet and Fiorinal are used for tension and migraine headaches (ideally short term). Barbiturates act on the brains principal inhibitory neurotransmitter known as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Barbiturates bind to specific sites on the GABA receptor where it potentiates and prolongs the inhibitory actions of GABA leading the the postsynaptic neuron to hyperpolarize so it is unable to depolarize and have an action potential (ie the nerve can't fire). As the dose increases to dangerous levels barbiturates stimulate GABA receptors directly even in the absence of GABA (this feature is what makes barbiturates so dangerous). Barbiturates also block glutamate, the brains principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Jimi Hendrix is probably one of the most famous people to die from barbiturates, he took about 9 100 mg capsules of Seconal and he had a significant amount of alcohol. That is a very small safety margin, simply getting a one month prescription for 30 capsules would be lethal for most people. But often the reason people die from any drug (including alcohol) is from mixing them causing a significant synergetic effect. Today in places where euthanasia is legal typically pentobarbital or sodium thiopental are used at a dose up to 15 grams. Once The drug Librium (chlordiazepoxide), the first benzodiazepine to be followed by Valium (diazepam) three years later, hit the market in 1960 barbiturate use dropped especially as more and more benzodiazepines were developed. Benzodiazepines have nearly identical clinical effects and in most cases they work as well as barbiturates but when taken alone is it nearly impossible to die, a dose hundreds or even millions of times the normal dose is lethal. Part of the reason benzodiazepines can't kill like barbiturates is because benzodiazepines don't act on glutamate and they need the presence of GABA for effects to occur, barbiturates do not. And for the record nearly 1,000 people die from Tylenol toxicity in North America. Odds are a suicide attempt will fail and the person will be fine or they may have some internal damage but death is not common. More often a death from Tylenol is because of long term high dose use. Answered by Lynsey Flint 1 year ago.

Drugs like Tylenol can kill you, but they don't do it quickly. They kill off your liver, and then you get to lie there and slowly, slowly die as the toxins that your liver would normally excrete build and build in your body. It's a horrible, slow, agonizing way to die. The only really fast way to go would be cyanide. It can kill in minutes. Answered by Winter Georgevic 1 year ago.

Tylenol pm (the big blue and white circular ones) works. But it takes a few hrs and you gotta take like 50 of them. Theres the basics, like a gun or jumping. Idk how someone wuld get Syanide but i heard thats a pretty quick death. Answered by Deane Cumblidge 1 year ago.

I hear most isotopes of Thorium are incredibly toxic. Even in microscopic they can be toxic I believe. Answered by Fredric Tysinger 1 year ago.

how would you know that Tylenol seems to fail? Answered by Charise Bonar 1 year ago.


The agent not commonly used for induction of general anesthesia?
Tramadol Thiopentone sodium Propofol Ketamine Asked by Jamika Shopen 1 year ago.

Tramadol is not used for inducing general anesthesia. The other three (pentothal, propofol and ketamine) are routinely used, along with etomidate, Brevital, fentanyl (for cardiac surgery) or inhalation agents (for kids) Hope that helps. Answered by Ronald Victorine 1 year ago.


How do medical professionals administer psych meds that can only be given IV to a combative patient?
I understand the need to administer psychotropic medications to patients when it is court ordered or when a patient is not mentally ill, but needs treatment for physical injury. However, with respect to those who are mentally ill/acutely disturbed, those who would reject PO drugs, and for whom an IM/SQ formulation... Asked by Earle Nacke 1 year ago.

I understand the need to administer psychotropic medications to patients when it is court ordered or when a patient is not mentally ill, but needs treatment for physical injury. However, with respect to those who are mentally ill/acutely disturbed, those who would reject PO drugs, and for whom an IM/SQ formulation of the needed drug does not exist or would work too slowly or far too erraticly (diazepam) if given IM, do you establish patent IV access to administer the drug? Even those who are being held with every orderly and nurse in the ward can make miniscule movements that would seem to render a proper IV line placement difficult. Taking this further, how do you do this over and over, to a patient who is refusing something like valproate (the therapeutic portion being the valproate anion of compounds containing it valproic acid, sodium valproate, etc.) or another agent that can only be given PO or IV, due to tissue damage for instance? This would seem to be a very tedious task that would take up an enormous amount of staff resources if a medication had to be administered even just daily, but if this was a B.I.D. or T.I.D. dosing, and you had a refractory patient (refusing more out of spite than out of illness), this could go on ad infinitum. I'm adding the caveat that the medication does work when administered, which is a mitigating factor in ECT use. However, there again, even with ECT, most physicians would make an allowance for a short acting anesthetic (Brevital®, Diprivan®, etc.) and a paralytic (Anectine®, Pavulon®, Norcuron®, etc.) which are optimally given through an IV line (propofol can only be given that way). So with consistently refractory and recalcitrant patients, is a dose of remifentanil given IM and the anesthetic effect awaited? With ECT, can it just be administered unmodified? It can't be that painful, it will induce immediate unconsciousness anyway and it is the patient's fault, perhaps unmodified ECT can induce a change. I'm just curious to know from those who work in ER's, psych. wards/hospitals, etc. Answered by Emmy Friesz 1 year ago.

IV Medications used to treat combative patients is only administered if the patient cannot be reasoned with. At that point, the medications are simply used to sedate the patient so that they can be observed. Usually, that IV medication is something more similar to Xanax or Ativan used for short term relief of symptoms. Once a patient is sedated in the ER they would be involuntarily admitted to the psychology ward of the hospital. At that point, medication would be controlled by the doctor on staff and would not be administered through IV unless the patient refused medication in which case medication may be given involuntarily. However, the medication given in the ward would usually be meant to ease the symptoms of mental illness not sedate the patient. So, generally the patient will begin feeling better after taking the medications indicated for his/her condition and in turn become more compliant and there will no longer be a need to administer anything via IV. ECT is a last resort in many cases and is really only therapeutic for treating various forms of depression (though this point can be argued). Further, ECT is not meant to work as a sedating agent as you suggest with the above drugs. ECT is inherently sedating but the real reason for doing ECT is to change the patients brain chemistry so that their symptoms subside. Generally when a patient is undergoing ECT they are not combative. Answered by Quinn Baddley 1 year ago.

It relies upon on the meds. I by surprise met a difficulty the place the nurse refused to replenish my Effexor and that i went via withdrawal for 2 days (it grew to become into torture). from time to time the drugstore supply you a pair of days properly worth of meds in the event that they know you're seeing a physician quickly. If that's no longer an selection authentic now, I say bypass to the ER and get your meds. Then attempt to discover someplace the place you may get seen by utilising a psychiatrist often. in case you're on incapacity or Medicare, numerous places will see you (even extreme-scale places). you do no longer could desire to bypass to the interior sight well-being sanatorium. stable success! :) draw close in there!!! :) Answered by Lyda Northcutt 1 year ago.


Why use sodium pentothal instead of propofol?
I received ECT a few months ago, and each time they used pentothal for the induction of anaesthesia, followed by succinylcholine for a muscle relaxant. I'm curious why they would use this instead of propofol - I thought it was the standard now, having mostly replaced pentothal. Asked by Chadwick Rogacion 1 year ago.

We don't use pentothal, we use Brevital (methohexital). It lowers the seizure threshold, so the ECT works. Propofol and pentothal raise the seizure threshold. We actually use pentothal to STOP seizures. Answered by Sharie Mclauchlin 1 year ago.

Propofol "is the most commonly used parenteral anesthetic in the United States". From the little that I have just read about the two drugs I can point out a few reasons why a doctor would prefer sodium thiopental(Pentothal) over propofol, besides the doctor's previous experience: Propofol, being not water soluble, is made into an emulsion with the aid of egg protein. although the literature states that anaphylactoid reactions are about the same as thiopental I find that hard to believe. Propofol emulsions also promote bacterial growth, you can see why, and this has resulted in "serious patient infections". Thiopental also has a proven protection for the brain from cerebral ischemia where propofol does not. Propopol causes pain on injection, whereas thiopental does not. Propofol does have ant-nausea effects, thiopental does not, and causes less bronkospasm than thiopental (I don't believe this). I suspect that the statistics do not reflect repeated dosing from several surgeries. Given egg phosphatide (in Propofol) over and over by IV seems to me would make allergic reactions become more likely. Answered by Vannesa Cuzman 1 year ago.

Please find out how your doc got pentothal into the USA. We do not make it any more and other countries refuse to send it to the USA because we use it for executions. Answered by Manuela Cartwright 1 year ago.


Discuss the possibilities of administering sodium pentobarbitone via intrarectal, inhalation and topical route
Asked by Angella Slodysko 1 year ago.

won't get absorbed in any of the above routes- it must be given IV. there are some barbiturates that can be administered without an IV- for instance, you can give brevital per rectum. Answered by Caitlin Easom 1 year ago.


What is the best OD killer?
Kristina...gun or jumping? This question is not about suicide really. Sorry if it seems that way but this is about drugs and the body's reaction... Asked by Maya Hevesy 1 year ago.

READ> No, I am not a little emo idiot. I just like knowing random crazy things and I have an interest about things with the body and things that would suit me to be a doctor. I am just curious to what the best overdose killing method is. A really quick one too. I have been researching and household products like Tylenol seems to fail. But wouldn't a massive mixture of something would do the trick? What would the killing mixture be? (you can also add in the details like the chemical effects and the whole process, more knowledge, the better :D) Honestly idk why these topics interest me. Just seem exciting. I love science/health stuff. I am totally going to be a doctor ;) haha So people of Yahoo Answers, what is the most extraordinary, quick killing OD method? Answered by Elena Schmandt 1 year ago.

That is a very simple question to answer, one class of drugs are unquestionably not only externally dangerous but also not painful and have no specific "antidote" like opioids (morphine, heroin) to counteract their effects. I am talking about barbiturates, a class of drugs used primarily as sedatives, hypnotics, and aneastetics. Barbiturates include Seconal (secobarbital), Nembutal (pentobarbital), Luminal (phenobarbital), Sodium Pentothal (sodium thiopental), Butisol (butabarbital), Amytal (amobarbital), Mebaral (mephobarbital), Oramon (aprobarbital), Brevital (methohexital), and butalbital. Firstly let me say the reason I am willing to tell you about the danger of these drugs is because 1) it is well known and with a bit of study you could find it out, 2) there is no evidence that providing information increases the risk of a person attempting or completing suicide, 3) barbiturates are rarely used, highly inaccessible since most are no longer made do to lack of demand. There are a few barbiturates in particular Seconal (secobarbital), Nembutal (phenobarbital), and Sodium Pentothal (sodium thiopental) that are particularly dangerous. A now discontinued (at least in most countries) drug called Tuinal (secobarbital/amobarbital) showed to be particularly dangerous. In most countries the pill form of almost all barbiturates have been taken off the market, a few barbiturates (typically phenobarbital, thiopental, amobarbital, and methohexital) are still used in hospital and other medical facilities however if they are available it is typically only for IV use and not used outside of hospital. The major exception is for the drug phenobarbital, a much safer barbiturate because it is absorbed slowly and it has less capacity to produce respiratory depression. In The United States, unless medications have very recently changed (unlikely) phenobarbital (Luminal), mephobarbital aka methylphenobarbital (Mebaral), secobarbital (Seconal), and butabarbital (Butisol) are still available as are combination analgesics like Fiorinal and Fioricet which contain the barbiturate butalbital along with caffeine, with acetaminophen (in Fioricet) or with Aspirin (in Fiorinal), and there is also a from of both drugs that also has codeine. Fioricet and Fiorinal are used for tension and migraine headaches (ideally short term). Barbiturates act on the brains principal inhibitory neurotransmitter known as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Barbiturates bind to specific sites on the GABA receptor where it potentiates and prolongs the inhibitory actions of GABA leading the the postsynaptic neuron to hyperpolarize so it is unable to depolarize and have an action potential (ie the nerve can't fire). As the dose increases to dangerous levels barbiturates stimulate GABA receptors directly even in the absence of GABA (this feature is what makes barbiturates so dangerous). Barbiturates also block glutamate, the brains principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Jimi Hendrix is probably one of the most famous people to die from barbiturates, he took about 9 100 mg capsules of Seconal and he had a significant amount of alcohol. That is a very small safety margin, simply getting a one month prescription for 30 capsules would be lethal for most people. But often the reason people die from any drug (including alcohol) is from mixing them causing a significant synergetic effect. Today in places where euthanasia is legal typically pentobarbital or sodium thiopental are used at a dose up to 15 grams. Once The drug Librium (chlordiazepoxide), the first benzodiazepine to be followed by Valium (diazepam) three years later, hit the market in 1960 barbiturate use dropped especially as more and more benzodiazepines were developed. Benzodiazepines have nearly identical clinical effects and in most cases they work as well as barbiturates but when taken alone is it nearly impossible to die, a dose hundreds or even millions of times the normal dose is lethal. Part of the reason benzodiazepines can't kill like barbiturates is because benzodiazepines don't act on glutamate and they need the presence of GABA for effects to occur, barbiturates do not. And for the record nearly 1,000 people die from Tylenol toxicity in North America. Odds are a suicide attempt will fail and the person will be fine or they may have some internal damage but death is not common. More often a death from Tylenol is because of long term high dose use. Answered by Tesha Maffey 1 year ago.

Drugs like Tylenol can kill you, but they don't do it quickly. They kill off your liver, and then you get to lie there and slowly, slowly die as the toxins that your liver would normally excrete build and build in your body. It's a horrible, slow, agonizing way to die. The only really fast way to go would be cyanide. It can kill in minutes. Answered by Deb Hamling 1 year ago.

Tylenol pm (the big blue and white circular ones) works. But it takes a few hrs and you gotta take like 50 of them. Theres the basics, like a gun or jumping. Idk how someone wuld get Syanide but i heard thats a pretty quick death. Answered by Ernestina Gagon 1 year ago.

I hear most isotopes of Thorium are incredibly toxic. Even in microscopic they can be toxic I believe. Answered by Vincenzo Below 1 year ago.

how would you know that Tylenol seems to fail? Answered by Dave Moisa 1 year ago.


The agent not commonly used for induction of general anesthesia?
Tramadol Thiopentone sodium Propofol Ketamine Asked by Luann Schermer 1 year ago.

Tramadol is not used for inducing general anesthesia. The other three (pentothal, propofol and ketamine) are routinely used, along with etomidate, Brevital, fentanyl (for cardiac surgery) or inhalation agents (for kids) Hope that helps. Answered by Doretta Hauth 1 year ago.


How do medical professionals administer psych meds that can only be given IV to a combative patient?
I understand the need to administer psychotropic medications to patients when it is court ordered or when a patient is not mentally ill, but needs treatment for physical injury. However, with respect to those who are mentally ill/acutely disturbed, those who would reject PO drugs, and for whom an IM/SQ formulation... Asked by Sonia Foradori 1 year ago.

I understand the need to administer psychotropic medications to patients when it is court ordered or when a patient is not mentally ill, but needs treatment for physical injury. However, with respect to those who are mentally ill/acutely disturbed, those who would reject PO drugs, and for whom an IM/SQ formulation of the needed drug does not exist or would work too slowly or far too erraticly (diazepam) if given IM, do you establish patent IV access to administer the drug? Even those who are being held with every orderly and nurse in the ward can make miniscule movements that would seem to render a proper IV line placement difficult. Taking this further, how do you do this over and over, to a patient who is refusing something like valproate (the therapeutic portion being the valproate anion of compounds containing it valproic acid, sodium valproate, etc.) or another agent that can only be given PO or IV, due to tissue damage for instance? This would seem to be a very tedious task that would take up an enormous amount of staff resources if a medication had to be administered even just daily, but if this was a B.I.D. or T.I.D. dosing, and you had a refractory patient (refusing more out of spite than out of illness), this could go on ad infinitum. I'm adding the caveat that the medication does work when administered, which is a mitigating factor in ECT use. However, there again, even with ECT, most physicians would make an allowance for a short acting anesthetic (Brevital®, Diprivan®, etc.) and a paralytic (Anectine®, Pavulon®, Norcuron®, etc.) which are optimally given through an IV line (propofol can only be given that way). So with consistently refractory and recalcitrant patients, is a dose of remifentanil given IM and the anesthetic effect awaited? With ECT, can it just be administered unmodified? It can't be that painful, it will induce immediate unconsciousness anyway and it is the patient's fault, perhaps unmodified ECT can induce a change. I'm just curious to know from those who work in ER's, psych. wards/hospitals, etc. Answered by Kerri Terrasas 1 year ago.

IV Medications used to treat combative patients is only administered if the patient cannot be reasoned with. At that point, the medications are simply used to sedate the patient so that they can be observed. Usually, that IV medication is something more similar to Xanax or Ativan used for short term relief of symptoms. Once a patient is sedated in the ER they would be involuntarily admitted to the psychology ward of the hospital. At that point, medication would be controlled by the doctor on staff and would not be administered through IV unless the patient refused medication in which case medication may be given involuntarily. However, the medication given in the ward would usually be meant to ease the symptoms of mental illness not sedate the patient. So, generally the patient will begin feeling better after taking the medications indicated for his/her condition and in turn become more compliant and there will no longer be a need to administer anything via IV. ECT is a last resort in many cases and is really only therapeutic for treating various forms of depression (though this point can be argued). Further, ECT is not meant to work as a sedating agent as you suggest with the above drugs. ECT is inherently sedating but the real reason for doing ECT is to change the patients brain chemistry so that their symptoms subside. Generally when a patient is undergoing ECT they are not combative. Answered by Mendy Cipcic 1 year ago.

It relies upon on the meds. I by surprise met a difficulty the place the nurse refused to replenish my Effexor and that i went via withdrawal for 2 days (it grew to become into torture). from time to time the drugstore supply you a pair of days properly worth of meds in the event that they know you're seeing a physician quickly. If that's no longer an selection authentic now, I say bypass to the ER and get your meds. Then attempt to discover someplace the place you may get seen by utilising a psychiatrist often. in case you're on incapacity or Medicare, numerous places will see you (even extreme-scale places). you do no longer could desire to bypass to the interior sight well-being sanatorium. stable success! :) draw close in there!!! :) Answered by Melissa Billotte 1 year ago.


Why use sodium pentothal instead of propofol?
I received ECT a few months ago, and each time they used pentothal for the induction of anaesthesia, followed by succinylcholine for a muscle relaxant. I'm curious why they would use this instead of propofol - I thought it was the standard now, having mostly replaced pentothal. Asked by Dane Jockers 1 year ago.

We don't use pentothal, we use Brevital (methohexital). It lowers the seizure threshold, so the ECT works. Propofol and pentothal raise the seizure threshold. We actually use pentothal to STOP seizures. Answered by Charita Mellow 1 year ago.

Propofol "is the most commonly used parenteral anesthetic in the United States". From the little that I have just read about the two drugs I can point out a few reasons why a doctor would prefer sodium thiopental(Pentothal) over propofol, besides the doctor's previous experience: Propofol, being not water soluble, is made into an emulsion with the aid of egg protein. although the literature states that anaphylactoid reactions are about the same as thiopental I find that hard to believe. Propofol emulsions also promote bacterial growth, you can see why, and this has resulted in "serious patient infections". Thiopental also has a proven protection for the brain from cerebral ischemia where propofol does not. Propopol causes pain on injection, whereas thiopental does not. Propofol does have ant-nausea effects, thiopental does not, and causes less bronkospasm than thiopental (I don't believe this). I suspect that the statistics do not reflect repeated dosing from several surgeries. Given egg phosphatide (in Propofol) over and over by IV seems to me would make allergic reactions become more likely. Answered by Nick Manocchio 1 year ago.

Please find out how your doc got pentothal into the USA. We do not make it any more and other countries refuse to send it to the USA because we use it for executions. Answered by Jana Sakihara 1 year ago.


Discuss the possibilities of administering sodium pentobarbitone via intrarectal, inhalation and topical route
Asked by Alverta Schmig 1 year ago.

won't get absorbed in any of the above routes- it must be given IV. there are some barbiturates that can be administered without an IV- for instance, you can give brevital per rectum. Answered by Annamarie Ferrusi 1 year ago.


What is the best OD killer?
Kristina...gun or jumping? This question is not about suicide really. Sorry if it seems that way but this is about drugs and the body's reaction... Asked by Shira Hunnell 1 year ago.

READ> No, I am not a little emo idiot. I just like knowing random crazy things and I have an interest about things with the body and things that would suit me to be a doctor. I am just curious to what the best overdose killing method is. A really quick one too. I have been researching and household products like Tylenol seems to fail. But wouldn't a massive mixture of something would do the trick? What would the killing mixture be? (you can also add in the details like the chemical effects and the whole process, more knowledge, the better :D) Honestly idk why these topics interest me. Just seem exciting. I love science/health stuff. I am totally going to be a doctor ;) haha So people of Yahoo Answers, what is the most extraordinary, quick killing OD method? Answered by Russell Faggs 1 year ago.

That is a very simple question to answer, one class of drugs are unquestionably not only externally dangerous but also not painful and have no specific "antidote" like opioids (morphine, heroin) to counteract their effects. I am talking about barbiturates, a class of drugs used primarily as sedatives, hypnotics, and aneastetics. Barbiturates include Seconal (secobarbital), Nembutal (pentobarbital), Luminal (phenobarbital), Sodium Pentothal (sodium thiopental), Butisol (butabarbital), Amytal (amobarbital), Mebaral (mephobarbital), Oramon (aprobarbital), Brevital (methohexital), and butalbital. Firstly let me say the reason I am willing to tell you about the danger of these drugs is because 1) it is well known and with a bit of study you could find it out, 2) there is no evidence that providing information increases the risk of a person attempting or completing suicide, 3) barbiturates are rarely used, highly inaccessible since most are no longer made do to lack of demand. There are a few barbiturates in particular Seconal (secobarbital), Nembutal (phenobarbital), and Sodium Pentothal (sodium thiopental) that are particularly dangerous. A now discontinued (at least in most countries) drug called Tuinal (secobarbital/amobarbital) showed to be particularly dangerous. In most countries the pill form of almost all barbiturates have been taken off the market, a few barbiturates (typically phenobarbital, thiopental, amobarbital, and methohexital) are still used in hospital and other medical facilities however if they are available it is typically only for IV use and not used outside of hospital. The major exception is for the drug phenobarbital, a much safer barbiturate because it is absorbed slowly and it has less capacity to produce respiratory depression. In The United States, unless medications have very recently changed (unlikely) phenobarbital (Luminal), mephobarbital aka methylphenobarbital (Mebaral), secobarbital (Seconal), and butabarbital (Butisol) are still available as are combination analgesics like Fiorinal and Fioricet which contain the barbiturate butalbital along with caffeine, with acetaminophen (in Fioricet) or with Aspirin (in Fiorinal), and there is also a from of both drugs that also has codeine. Fioricet and Fiorinal are used for tension and migraine headaches (ideally short term). Barbiturates act on the brains principal inhibitory neurotransmitter known as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Barbiturates bind to specific sites on the GABA receptor where it potentiates and prolongs the inhibitory actions of GABA leading the the postsynaptic neuron to hyperpolarize so it is unable to depolarize and have an action potential (ie the nerve can't fire). As the dose increases to dangerous levels barbiturates stimulate GABA receptors directly even in the absence of GABA (this feature is what makes barbiturates so dangerous). Barbiturates also block glutamate, the brains principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Jimi Hendrix is probably one of the most famous people to die from barbiturates, he took about 9 100 mg capsules of Seconal and he had a significant amount of alcohol. That is a very small safety margin, simply getting a one month prescription for 30 capsules would be lethal for most people. But often the reason people die from any drug (including alcohol) is from mixing them causing a significant synergetic effect. Today in places where euthanasia is legal typically pentobarbital or sodium thiopental are used at a dose up to 15 grams. Once The drug Librium (chlordiazepoxide), the first benzodiazepine to be followed by Valium (diazepam) three years later, hit the market in 1960 barbiturate use dropped especially as more and more benzodiazepines were developed. Benzodiazepines have nearly identical clinical effects and in most cases they work as well as barbiturates but when taken alone is it nearly impossible to die, a dose hundreds or even millions of times the normal dose is lethal. Part of the reason benzodiazepines can't kill like barbiturates is because benzodiazepines don't act on glutamate and they need the presence of GABA for effects to occur, barbiturates do not. And for the record nearly 1,000 people die from Tylenol toxicity in North America. Odds are a suicide attempt will fail and the person will be fine or they may have some internal damage but death is not common. More often a death from Tylenol is because of long term high dose use. Answered by Monroe Ayele 1 year ago.

Drugs like Tylenol can kill you, but they don't do it quickly. They kill off your liver, and then you get to lie there and slowly, slowly die as the toxins that your liver would normally excrete build and build in your body. It's a horrible, slow, agonizing way to die. The only really fast way to go would be cyanide. It can kill in minutes. Answered by Ouida Gentille 1 year ago.

Tylenol pm (the big blue and white circular ones) works. But it takes a few hrs and you gotta take like 50 of them. Theres the basics, like a gun or jumping. Idk how someone wuld get Syanide but i heard thats a pretty quick death. Answered by Sheryll Penna 1 year ago.

I hear most isotopes of Thorium are incredibly toxic. Even in microscopic they can be toxic I believe. Answered by Eliza Kunselman 1 year ago.

how would you know that Tylenol seems to fail? Answered by Emilio Banek 1 year ago.


The agent not commonly used for induction of general anesthesia?
Tramadol Thiopentone sodium Propofol Ketamine Asked by Yer Soscia 1 year ago.

Tramadol is not used for inducing general anesthesia. The other three (pentothal, propofol and ketamine) are routinely used, along with etomidate, Brevital, fentanyl (for cardiac surgery) or inhalation agents (for kids) Hope that helps. Answered by Dannielle Denyer 1 year ago.


How do medical professionals administer psych meds that can only be given IV to a combative patient?
I understand the need to administer psychotropic medications to patients when it is court ordered or when a patient is not mentally ill, but needs treatment for physical injury. However, with respect to those who are mentally ill/acutely disturbed, those who would reject PO drugs, and for whom an IM/SQ formulation... Asked by Rafael Tymeson 1 year ago.

I understand the need to administer psychotropic medications to patients when it is court ordered or when a patient is not mentally ill, but needs treatment for physical injury. However, with respect to those who are mentally ill/acutely disturbed, those who would reject PO drugs, and for whom an IM/SQ formulation of the needed drug does not exist or would work too slowly or far too erraticly (diazepam) if given IM, do you establish patent IV access to administer the drug? Even those who are being held with every orderly and nurse in the ward can make miniscule movements that would seem to render a proper IV line placement difficult. Taking this further, how do you do this over and over, to a patient who is refusing something like valproate (the therapeutic portion being the valproate anion of compounds containing it valproic acid, sodium valproate, etc.) or another agent that can only be given PO or IV, due to tissue damage for instance? This would seem to be a very tedious task that would take up an enormous amount of staff resources if a medication had to be administered even just daily, but if this was a B.I.D. or T.I.D. dosing, and you had a refractory patient (refusing more out of spite than out of illness), this could go on ad infinitum. I'm adding the caveat that the medication does work when administered, which is a mitigating factor in ECT use. However, there again, even with ECT, most physicians would make an allowance for a short acting anesthetic (Brevital®, Diprivan®, etc.) and a paralytic (Anectine®, Pavulon®, Norcuron®, etc.) which are optimally given through an IV line (propofol can only be given that way). So with consistently refractory and recalcitrant patients, is a dose of remifentanil given IM and the anesthetic effect awaited? With ECT, can it just be administered unmodified? It can't be that painful, it will induce immediate unconsciousness anyway and it is the patient's fault, perhaps unmodified ECT can induce a change. I'm just curious to know from those who work in ER's, psych. wards/hospitals, etc. Answered by Johnette Ousdahl 1 year ago.

IV Medications used to treat combative patients is only administered if the patient cannot be reasoned with. At that point, the medications are simply used to sedate the patient so that they can be observed. Usually, that IV medication is something more similar to Xanax or Ativan used for short term relief of symptoms. Once a patient is sedated in the ER they would be involuntarily admitted to the psychology ward of the hospital. At that point, medication would be controlled by the doctor on staff and would not be administered through IV unless the patient refused medication in which case medication may be given involuntarily. However, the medication given in the ward would usually be meant to ease the symptoms of mental illness not sedate the patient. So, generally the patient will begin feeling better after taking the medications indicated for his/her condition and in turn become more compliant and there will no longer be a need to administer anything via IV. ECT is a last resort in many cases and is really only therapeutic for treating various forms of depression (though this point can be argued). Further, ECT is not meant to work as a sedating agent as you suggest with the above drugs. ECT is inherently sedating but the real reason for doing ECT is to change the patients brain chemistry so that their symptoms subside. Generally when a patient is undergoing ECT they are not combative. Answered by Dara Kreck 1 year ago.

It relies upon on the meds. I by surprise met a difficulty the place the nurse refused to replenish my Effexor and that i went via withdrawal for 2 days (it grew to become into torture). from time to time the drugstore supply you a pair of days properly worth of meds in the event that they know you're seeing a physician quickly. If that's no longer an selection authentic now, I say bypass to the ER and get your meds. Then attempt to discover someplace the place you may get seen by utilising a psychiatrist often. in case you're on incapacity or Medicare, numerous places will see you (even extreme-scale places). you do no longer could desire to bypass to the interior sight well-being sanatorium. stable success! :) draw close in there!!! :) Answered by Phil Copper 1 year ago.


Why use sodium pentothal instead of propofol?
I received ECT a few months ago, and each time they used pentothal for the induction of anaesthesia, followed by succinylcholine for a muscle relaxant. I'm curious why they would use this instead of propofol - I thought it was the standard now, having mostly replaced pentothal. Asked by Lavette Dellaratta 1 year ago.

We don't use pentothal, we use Brevital (methohexital). It lowers the seizure threshold, so the ECT works. Propofol and pentothal raise the seizure threshold. We actually use pentothal to STOP seizures. Answered by Tera Santillan 1 year ago.

Propofol "is the most commonly used parenteral anesthetic in the United States". From the little that I have just read about the two drugs I can point out a few reasons why a doctor would prefer sodium thiopental(Pentothal) over propofol, besides the doctor's previous experience: Propofol, being not water soluble, is made into an emulsion with the aid of egg protein. although the literature states that anaphylactoid reactions are about the same as thiopental I find that hard to believe. Propofol emulsions also promote bacterial growth, you can see why, and this has resulted in "serious patient infections". Thiopental also has a proven protection for the brain from cerebral ischemia where propofol does not. Propopol causes pain on injection, whereas thiopental does not. Propofol does have ant-nausea effects, thiopental does not, and causes less bronkospasm than thiopental (I don't believe this). I suspect that the statistics do not reflect repeated dosing from several surgeries. Given egg phosphatide (in Propofol) over and over by IV seems to me would make allergic reactions become more likely. Answered by Ariel Beechler 1 year ago.

Please find out how your doc got pentothal into the USA. We do not make it any more and other countries refuse to send it to the USA because we use it for executions. Answered by Hailey Grieme 1 year ago.


Discuss the possibilities of administering sodium pentobarbitone via intrarectal, inhalation and topical route
Asked by Chiquita Strasburg 1 year ago.

won't get absorbed in any of the above routes- it must be given IV. there are some barbiturates that can be administered without an IV- for instance, you can give brevital per rectum. Answered by Zelma Horeth 1 year ago.


What is the best OD killer?
Kristina...gun or jumping? This question is not about suicide really. Sorry if it seems that way but this is about drugs and the body's reaction... Asked by Jimmie Colpi 1 year ago.

READ> No, I am not a little emo idiot. I just like knowing random crazy things and I have an interest about things with the body and things that would suit me to be a doctor. I am just curious to what the best overdose killing method is. A really quick one too. I have been researching and household products like Tylenol seems to fail. But wouldn't a massive mixture of something would do the trick? What would the killing mixture be? (you can also add in the details like the chemical effects and the whole process, more knowledge, the better :D) Honestly idk why these topics interest me. Just seem exciting. I love science/health stuff. I am totally going to be a doctor ;) haha So people of Yahoo Answers, what is the most extraordinary, quick killing OD method? Answered by Lakita Osbon 1 year ago.

That is a very simple question to answer, one class of drugs are unquestionably not only externally dangerous but also not painful and have no specific "antidote" like opioids (morphine, heroin) to counteract their effects. I am talking about barbiturates, a class of drugs used primarily as sedatives, hypnotics, and aneastetics. Barbiturates include Seconal (secobarbital), Nembutal (pentobarbital), Luminal (phenobarbital), Sodium Pentothal (sodium thiopental), Butisol (butabarbital), Amytal (amobarbital), Mebaral (mephobarbital), Oramon (aprobarbital), Brevital (methohexital), and butalbital. Firstly let me say the reason I am willing to tell you about the danger of these drugs is because 1) it is well known and with a bit of study you could find it out, 2) there is no evidence that providing information increases the risk of a person attempting or completing suicide, 3) barbiturates are rarely used, highly inaccessible since most are no longer made do to lack of demand. There are a few barbiturates in particular Seconal (secobarbital), Nembutal (phenobarbital), and Sodium Pentothal (sodium thiopental) that are particularly dangerous. A now discontinued (at least in most countries) drug called Tuinal (secobarbital/amobarbital) showed to be particularly dangerous. In most countries the pill form of almost all barbiturates have been taken off the market, a few barbiturates (typically phenobarbital, thiopental, amobarbital, and methohexital) are still used in hospital and other medical facilities however if they are available it is typically only for IV use and not used outside of hospital. The major exception is for the drug phenobarbital, a much safer barbiturate because it is absorbed slowly and it has less capacity to produce respiratory depression. In The United States, unless medications have very recently changed (unlikely) phenobarbital (Luminal), mephobarbital aka methylphenobarbital (Mebaral), secobarbital (Seconal), and butabarbital (Butisol) are still available as are combination analgesics like Fiorinal and Fioricet which contain the barbiturate butalbital along with caffeine, with acetaminophen (in Fioricet) or with Aspirin (in Fiorinal), and there is also a from of both drugs that also has codeine. Fioricet and Fiorinal are used for tension and migraine headaches (ideally short term). Barbiturates act on the brains principal inhibitory neurotransmitter known as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Barbiturates bind to specific sites on the GABA receptor where it potentiates and prolongs the inhibitory actions of GABA leading the the postsynaptic neuron to hyperpolarize so it is unable to depolarize and have an action potential (ie the nerve can't fire). As the dose increases to dangerous levels barbiturates stimulate GABA receptors directly even in the absence of GABA (this feature is what makes barbiturates so dangerous). Barbiturates also block glutamate, the brains principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Jimi Hendrix is probably one of the most famous people to die from barbiturates, he took about 9 100 mg capsules of Seconal and he had a significant amount of alcohol. That is a very small safety margin, simply getting a one month prescription for 30 capsules would be lethal for most people. But often the reason people die from any drug (including alcohol) is from mixing them causing a significant synergetic effect. Today in places where euthanasia is legal typically pentobarbital or sodium thiopental are used at a dose up to 15 grams. Once The drug Librium (chlordiazepoxide), the first benzodiazepine to be followed by Valium (diazepam) three years later, hit the market in 1960 barbiturate use dropped especially as more and more benzodiazepines were developed. Benzodiazepines have nearly identical clinical effects and in most cases they work as well as barbiturates but when taken alone is it nearly impossible to die, a dose hundreds or even millions of times the normal dose is lethal. Part of the reason benzodiazepines can't kill like barbiturates is because benzodiazepines don't act on glutamate and they need the presence of GABA for effects to occur, barbiturates do not. And for the record nearly 1,000 people die from Tylenol toxicity in North America. Odds are a suicide attempt will fail and the person will be fine or they may have some internal damage but death is not common. More often a death from Tylenol is because of long term high dose use. Answered by Tracy Dokuchitz 1 year ago.

Drugs like Tylenol can kill you, but they don't do it quickly. They kill off your liver, and then you get to lie there and slowly, slowly die as the toxins that your liver would normally excrete build and build in your body. It's a horrible, slow, agonizing way to die. The only really fast way to go would be cyanide. It can kill in minutes. Answered by Salvador Kuk 1 year ago.

Tylenol pm (the big blue and white circular ones) works. But it takes a few hrs and you gotta take like 50 of them. Theres the basics, like a gun or jumping. Idk how someone wuld get Syanide but i heard thats a pretty quick death. Answered by Stewart Kilcrease 1 year ago.

I hear most isotopes of Thorium are incredibly toxic. Even in microscopic they can be toxic I believe. Answered by Shondra Kolata 1 year ago.

how would you know that Tylenol seems to fail? Answered by Marcellus Demagistris 1 year ago.


The agent not commonly used for induction of general anesthesia?
Tramadol Thiopentone sodium Propofol Ketamine Asked by Adela Finkelstein 1 year ago.

Tramadol is not used for inducing general anesthesia. The other three (pentothal, propofol and ketamine) are routinely used, along with etomidate, Brevital, fentanyl (for cardiac surgery) or inhalation agents (for kids) Hope that helps. Answered by Malcolm Herriott 1 year ago.


How do medical professionals administer psych meds that can only be given IV to a combative patient?
I understand the need to administer psychotropic medications to patients when it is court ordered or when a patient is not mentally ill, but needs treatment for physical injury. However, with respect to those who are mentally ill/acutely disturbed, those who would reject PO drugs, and for whom an IM/SQ formulation... Asked by Dotty Hammett 1 year ago.

I understand the need to administer psychotropic medications to patients when it is court ordered or when a patient is not mentally ill, but needs treatment for physical injury. However, with respect to those who are mentally ill/acutely disturbed, those who would reject PO drugs, and for whom an IM/SQ formulation of the needed drug does not exist or would work too slowly or far too erraticly (diazepam) if given IM, do you establish patent IV access to administer the drug? Even those who are being held with every orderly and nurse in the ward can make miniscule movements that would seem to render a proper IV line placement difficult. Taking this further, how do you do this over and over, to a patient who is refusing something like valproate (the therapeutic portion being the valproate anion of compounds containing it valproic acid, sodium valproate, etc.) or another agent that can only be given PO or IV, due to tissue damage for instance? This would seem to be a very tedious task that would take up an enormous amount of staff resources if a medication had to be administered even just daily, but if this was a B.I.D. or T.I.D. dosing, and you had a refractory patient (refusing more out of spite than out of illness), this could go on ad infinitum. I'm adding the caveat that the medication does work when administered, which is a mitigating factor in ECT use. However, there again, even with ECT, most physicians would make an allowance for a short acting anesthetic (Brevital®, Diprivan®, etc.) and a paralytic (Anectine®, Pavulon®, Norcuron®, etc.) which are optimally given through an IV line (propofol can only be given that way). So with consistently refractory and recalcitrant patients, is a dose of remifentanil given IM and the anesthetic effect awaited? With ECT, can it just be administered unmodified? It can't be that painful, it will induce immediate unconsciousness anyway and it is the patient's fault, perhaps unmodified ECT can induce a change. I'm just curious to know from those who work in ER's, psych. wards/hospitals, etc. Answered by Rossana Blasius 1 year ago.

IV Medications used to treat combative patients is only administered if the patient cannot be reasoned with. At that point, the medications are simply used to sedate the patient so that they can be observed. Usually, that IV medication is something more similar to Xanax or Ativan used for short term relief of symptoms. Once a patient is sedated in the ER they would be involuntarily admitted to the psychology ward of the hospital. At that point, medication would be controlled by the doctor on staff and would not be administered through IV unless the patient refused medication in which case medication may be given involuntarily. However, the medication given in the ward would usually be meant to ease the symptoms of mental illness not sedate the patient. So, generally the patient will begin feeling better after taking the medications indicated for his/her condition and in turn become more compliant and there will no longer be a need to administer anything via IV. ECT is a last resort in many cases and is really only therapeutic for treating various forms of depression (though this point can be argued). Further, ECT is not meant to work as a sedating agent as you suggest with the above drugs. ECT is inherently sedating but the real reason for doing ECT is to change the patients brain chemistry so that their symptoms subside. Generally when a patient is undergoing ECT they are not combative. Answered by Alisa Mojzisik 1 year ago.

It relies upon on the meds. I by surprise met a difficulty the place the nurse refused to replenish my Effexor and that i went via withdrawal for 2 days (it grew to become into torture). from time to time the drugstore supply you a pair of days properly worth of meds in the event that they know you're seeing a physician quickly. If that's no longer an selection authentic now, I say bypass to the ER and get your meds. Then attempt to discover someplace the place you may get seen by utilising a psychiatrist often. in case you're on incapacity or Medicare, numerous places will see you (even extreme-scale places). you do no longer could desire to bypass to the interior sight well-being sanatorium. stable success! :) draw close in there!!! :) Answered by Brandee Macwilliams 1 year ago.


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