My friend's son has Axenfeld-Reigers Anomaly.We are having a difficult time finding information..?
We are just mainly finding links to other people who are trying to find answer's too. If we do find something, it's very minimal information. If someone knows a good site for this specific anomaly please pass it on.....thank you
Asked by Donnette Kernodle 1 year ago.
Signs and Symptoms Patients displaying Axenfeld-Rieger (A-R) syndrome are generally asymptomatic. The condition is diagnosed based upon findings from routine biomicroscopic and gonioscopic evaluation. Historically, this condition was incorporated under the broader heading of anterior chamber cleavage syndromes, and included Axenfeld’s anomaly, Axenfeld’s syndrome, Rieger’s anomaly, and Rieger’s syndrome. Current theory now holds that these conditions are probably a continuum of a single developmental disorder, hence the name Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. This anterior segment disorder always presents with posterior embryotoxon (a prominent, anteriorly displaced Schwalbe’s line) and one or more of the following findings: iris strands adherent to Schwalbe’s line, iris hypoplasia, focal iris atrophy with hole formation, corectopia, and ectropion uveae. Glaucoma may develop in approximately 50 percent of patients with A-R syndrome, but is more common in those with central iris changes and pronounced anterior iris insertion. Non-ocular manifestations of A-R syndrome may include developmental defects of the teeth and facial bones, pituitary anomalies, cardiac disease, oculocutaneous albinism, and redundant periumbilical skin. A-R syndrome is always bilateral but may be markedly asymmetric. The condition appears to be hereditary, displaying an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern with variable expression. Pathogenesis There has been much speculation as to the embryonic pathogenesis of A-R syndrome. The current and most widely held theory suggests a developmental arrest of specific anterior segment tissues derived from neural crest cells, which apparently occurs late in gestation. It is not understood why such a developmental arrest occurs, but the result is the retention of a primordial endothelial cell layer on portions of the iris and angle structures. Contraction of these endothelial "membranes" leads to the associated abnormalities in form and function of the anterior segment structures. Presumably, this same developmental arrest can affect other organ systems, resulting in orofacial and other anomalies sometimes encountered in A-R syndrome. Management A-R syndrome, a congenital disorder, generally requires little therapeutic intervention. In those instances where iris atrophy results in pseudopolycoria, patients may be fitted with opaque, cosmetic contact lenses to improve their appearance and decrease optical aberrations. The greatest concern in patients with A-R syndrome is the development of secondary glaucoma. In most cases, those who develop glaucoma do so in childhood or early adulthood. Still, patients must be monitored throughout life for elevations in intraocular pressure and optic nerve head changes. Glaucoma therapy for patients with A-R syndrome follows the same therapeutic algorithm as for primary open angle glaucoma, however miotics are reported to be less effective in this condition. Typical therapy begins with topical -blockers (e.g., Betoptic-S) or topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g., Azopt). Unfortunately, many of these glaucoma cases become recalcitrant, and surgical intervention is often necessary. Clinical Pearls Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is described as a rare, congenital ocular disorder. Still, these authors have encountered many patients with manifestations of A-R syndrome, some of which are exceedingly subtle. In general, A-R syndrome is more academically interesting than it is clinically challenging. Glaucoma must be a concern in every patient presenting with this disorder. In fact, when glaucoma does occur, it can be quite severe. In addition, patients with A-R syndrome should undergo both a comprehensive medical and dental evaluation to rule out non-ocular manifestations. Because of the known inheritance pattern and variable expression, recommend ocular evaluation for all family members when you detect A-R syndrome. Other reports in this section Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Uveitic Glaucoma & Glaucomatocyclitic Crisis Pigment Dispersion Syndrome & Pigmentary Glaucoma Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma Anterior Uveitis Hyphema Angle Recession Glaucoma Lens Induced Glaucoma Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome and Pseudoexfoliative Glaucoma Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome Neovascular Glaucoma Pars Planitis Choroidal Rupture Answered by Katrice Hedgepeth 1 year ago.
Yikes the dog chewed it up?
just wanted to let you all know the dogs are going to be fine thanks for the help and someof you were right sons meds now in plastic box with lid hard lesson to learn but it appears i can be tought lol
Asked by Dwana Forsthoffer 1 year ago.
Call a pharmacist if you can't get your vet...they can tell you if it's harmful...if still no help call animal poison control...check the link...good luck! Answered by Leanora Satre 1 year ago.
Call the vet ASAP. Is there a warning about injestion on the instructions? If there isn't, you'll probably be OK. If there is, keep a close eye on the dogs and get to the vet quick. Answered by Nicky Wowk 1 year ago.
call the vet asap. the dogs could have a different reaction to your sons medications. take both of them,and watch them until you can take them in. bring in the bottle or the case it came in to assure what type of medication and the ingredients. always be safe than sorry. to make sure this doesnt happen again i suggest you re-organize your bathroom and put medications in a higher spot. Answered by Helga Tsinnie 1 year ago.
You can always call the ASPCA poison control number. They may charge you for the call, however, they would definitely know if anything could potentially hurt the dogs. (888) 426-4435 Good Luck. Answered by Gidget Robishaw 1 year ago.
they might have a emergency number on the recording at the vet office,if not try a poison center. but i would be waiting at the vets door when they open. good luck Answered by Stasia April 1 year ago.
Since Animals have only our human voices to get help when in trouble, it is hard for me to understand that, like, in you're case, all it takes, of making a call to a Vet, to make sure that all is OK. THAT DOESN'T COST A DIME! Answered by Priscilla Shiver 1 year ago.
I thought you where going to tell me your dog ate your sons homework i was about to giggle.... Im sure your dog will be oky just give him lots of water to drink or put your finger down his throut so he will throw it up like you do when your chocking on something. Answered by Serita Frees 1 year ago.
Call the poisons hotline. Answered by Grover Mainville 1 year ago.
you really need to run this by your vet and soon and learn from this. Answered by Jena Barkett 1 year ago.
How do beta blockers reduce the heart rate?
Asked by Maryetta Vuckovich 1 year ago.
Beta blockers are medicines that affect the body's response to certain nerve impulses. This, in turn, decreases the force and rate of the heart's contractions, which lowers blood pressure and reduces the heart's demand for oxygen. The main use of beta blockers is to treat high blood pressure. Some also are used to relieve the type of chest pain called angina or to prevent heart attacks in people who already have had one heart attack. These drugs may also be prescribed for other conditions, such as migraine, tremors, and irregular heartbeat. In eye drop form, they are used to treat certain kinds of glaucoma. Beta blockers, also known as beta-adrenergic blockers, are available only with a physician's prescription. The come in capsule, tablet, liquid, and injectable forms. Some common beta blockers are atenolol (Tenormin), metoprolol (Lopressor), nadolol (Corgard), propranolol (Inderal), and timolol (Blocadren). Timolol and certain other beta blockers are also sold in eye drop form for treating glaucoma. Eye drops that contain beta blockers include betaxolol (Betoptic), cartelol (Ocupress), and timolol (Timoptic).- Answered by Melvin Stanis 1 year ago.
Beta blockade is where the drug (inderal is just one of the family, there are many) competitively interferes with the binding of adrenaline to the receptors for it. When the beta blocker is taking up the slot, the adrenaline has nowhere to bind, so it doesn't induce the fight-or-flight response. Thus, things that would normally increase the heart rate - exercise, stress, etc. don't anymore. Also, the blood pressure response is blunted as well. Answered by Lucille Matkowski 1 year ago.