What are amino acids?
Asked by Heidi Weathers 6 months ago.
Amino acids play central roles both as building blocks of proteins and as intermediates in metabolism. The 20 amino acids that are found within proteins convey a vast array of chemical versatility. The precise amino acid content, and the sequence of those amino acids, of a specific protein, is determined by the sequence of the bases in the gene that encodes that protein. The chemical properties of the amino acids of proteins determine the biological activity of the protein. Proteins not only catalyze all (or most) of the reactions in living cells, they control virtually all cellular process. In addition, proteins contain within their amino acid sequences the necessary information to determine how that protein will fold into a three dimensional structure, and the stability of the resulting structure. The field of protein folding and stability has been a critically important area of research for years, and remains today one of the great unsolved mysteries. It is, however, being actively investigated, and progress is being made every day. As we learn about amino acids, it is important to keep in mind that one of the more important reasons to understand amino acid structure and properties is to be able to understand protein structure and properties. We will see that the vastly complex characteristics of even a small, relatively simple, protein are a composite of the properties of the amino acids which comprise the protein. Top Essential amino acids Humans can produce 10 of the 20 amino acids. The others must be supplied in the food. Failure to obtain enough of even 1 of the 10 essential amino acids, those that we cannot make, results in degradation of the body's proteins—muscle and so forth—to obtain the one amino acid that is needed. Unlike fat and starch, the human body does not store excess amino acids for later use—the amino acids must be in the food every day. The 10 amino acids that we can produce are alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine and tyrosine. Tyrosine is produced from phenylalanine, so if the diet is deficient in phenylalanine, tyrosine will be required as well. The essential amino acids are arginine (required for the young, but not for adults), histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. These amino acids are required in the diet. Plants, of course, must be able to make all the amino acids. Humans, on the other hand, do not have all the the enzymes required for the biosynthesis of all of the amino acids. Answered by Lang Hunting 6 months ago.
In chemistry, an amino acid is a molecule containing both amine and carboxyl functional groups. These molecules are particularly important in biochemistry, where this term refers to alpha-amino acids with the general formula H2NCHRCOOH, where R is an organic substituent. In the alpha amino acids, the amino and carboxylate groups are attached to the same carbon, which is called the α–carbon. The various alpha amino acids differ in which side chain (R group) is attached to their alpha carbon. They can vary in size from just a hydrogen atom in glycine through a methyl group in alanine to a large heterocyclic group in tryptophan. Amino acids are critical to life, and have a variety of roles in metabolism. One particularly important function is as the building blocks of proteins, which are linear chains of amino acids. Amino acids are also important in many other biological molecules, such as forming parts of coenzymes, as in S-adenosylmethionine, or as precursors for the biosynthesis of molecules such as heme. Due to this central role in biochemistry, amino acids are very important in nutrition. Answered by Olive Oelschlaeger 6 months ago.
In chemistry, an amino acid is a molecule containing both amine and carboxyl functional groups. These molecules are particularly important in biochemistry, where this term refers to alpha-amino acids with the general formula H2NCHRCOOH, where R is an organic substituent. In the alpha amino acids, the amino and carboxylate groups are attached to the same carbon, which is called the α–carbon. The various alpha amino acids differ in which side chain (R group) is attached to their alpha carbon. They can vary in size from just a hydrogen atom in glycine through a methyl group in alanine to a large heterocyclic group in tryptophan. Answered by Fatimah Reech 6 months ago.
Protein Monomers (things proteins are made of) Answered by Beata Formento 6 months ago.
can be used as lots of things, an additive in animal feed, a low calorie sweetener, vitamins they're very useful Answered by Lucile Buss 6 months ago.
protein molecules Answered by Flossie Okeson 6 months ago.
What is a derivatized amino acid?
what is a derivatized amino acid?
Asked by Breann Boughn 6 months ago.
Amino acid analysis is a process to determine the quantities of each individual amino acid in a protein. There are four steps in amino acid analysis: 1. Hydrolysis 2. Derivatization 3. Separation of derivatized amino acids 4. Data interpretation and calculations The free amino acids cannot be detected by HPLC unless they have been derivatized. Derivatization is performed automatically on the amino acid analyzer by reacting the free amino acids, under basic conditions, with phenylisothiocyanate (PITC) to produce phenylthiocarbamyl (PTC) amino acid derivatives. Answered by Enola Magnano 6 months ago.
Amino acids . . . . . ?
what is the amino acid sequence ?
Asked by Edie Lascody 6 months ago.
Peptide sequence or amino acid sequence is the order in which amino acid residues, connected by peptide bonds, lie in the chain in peptides and proteins. The sequence is generally reported from the N-terminal end containing free amino group to the C-terminal end containing free carboxyl group. Peptide sequence is often called protein sequence if it represents the primary structure of a protein. In other words, the amino acid sequence basically defines what kind of protein is made (as different proteins are made up of differnt chains of amino acids). Answered by Loma Donart 6 months ago.
what does it mean to have high amino acids in your body Answered by Adolfo Rykert 6 months ago.
in what way do amino acids differ from each other?
Asked by Anisa Siegert 6 months ago.
Amino acids in proteins Amino acids are the basic structural building units of proteins. They form short polymer chains called peptides or longer chains either called polypeptides or proteins. The process of such formation from an mRNA template is known as translation, which is part of protein synthesis. Twenty amino acids are encoded by the standard genetic code and are called proteinogenic or standard amino acids. The mean mass of the standard amino acids, weighted by abundance in proteins, is roughly 111 Daltons. Other amino acids contained in proteins are usually formed by post-translational modification, which is modification after translation in protein synthesis. These modifications are often essential for the function or regulation of a protein. Non-protein amino acids Hundreds of types of non-protein amino acids have been found in nature and they have multiple functions in living organisms. Microorganisms and plants can produce uncommon amino acids. In microbes, examples include 2-aminoisobutyric acid and lanthionine, which is a sulfide-bridged alanine dimer. Both these amino acids are both found in peptidic lantibiotics such as alamethicin. While in plants, 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid is a small disubstituted cyclic amino acid that is a key intermediate in the production of the plant hormone ethylene. In humans, non-protein amino acids also have biologically-important roles. Glycine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate are neurotransmitters and many amino acids are used to synthesize other molecules, for example: Tryptophan is a precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin Glycine is a precursor of porphyrins such as heme Arginine is a precursor of the hormone nitric oxide Carnitine is used in lipid transport within a cell, Ornithine is a precursor of polyamines, Homocysteine is an intermidiate in S-adenosylmethionine recycling Also present are hydroxyproline, hydroxylysine, and sarcosine. The thyroid hormones are also alpha-amino acids. Some amino acids have even been detected in meteorites, especially in a type known as carbonaceous chondrites. This observation has prompted the suggestion that life may have arrived on earth from an extraterrestrial source. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids Depending on the polarity of the side chain, aminoacids can be hydrophilic or hydrophobic to various degrees. This influences their interaction with other structures, both within the protein itself and within other proteins. The distribution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic aminoacids determines the tertiary structure of the protein, and their physical location on the outside structure of the proteins influences their quaternary structure. For example, soluble proteins have surfaces rich with polar aminoacids like serine and threonine, while integral membrane proteins tend to have outer ring of hydrophobic aminoacids that anchors them to the lipid bilayer, and proteins anchored to the membrane have a hydrophobic end that locks into the membrane. Similarly, proteins that have to bind to positively-charged molecules have surfaces rich with negatively charged aminoacids like glutamate and aspartate, while proteins binding to negatively-charged molecules have surfaces rich with positively charged chains like lysine and arginine. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions of the proteins do not have to rely only on the sidechains of aminoacids themselves. By various posttranslational modifications other chains can be attached to the proteins, forming hydrophobic lipoproteins or hydrophilic glycoproteins. Nonstandard amino acids Aside from the twenty standard amino acids and the two special amino acids, there are a vast number of "nonstandard amino acids". Two of these can be encoded in the genetic code, but are rather rare in proteins. At least two others are also coded by DNA in a non-standard manner: Selenocysteine is incorporated into some proteins at a UGA codon, which is normally a stop codon. Pyrrolysine is used by some methanogenic bacteria in enzymes that they use to produce methane. It is coded for with the codon UAG. Examples of nonstandard amino acids that are not found in proteins include the sulfur-containing taurine and the neurotransmitters GABA and dopamine. Other examples are lanthionine, 2-Aminoisobutyric acid, and dehydroalanine. Nonstandard amino acids often occur in the metabolic pathways for standard amino acids - for example ornithine and citrulline occur in the urea cycle, part of amino acid breakdown. Nonstandard amino acids are usually formed through modifications to standard amino acids. For example, taurine can be formed by the decarboxylation of cysteine, while dopamine is synthesized from tyrosine and hydroxyproline is made by a posttranslational modification of proline (common in collagen). Over 79 amino acids were found in the primitive Murchison meteorite. Answered by Lester Shirilla 6 months ago.
They are different from each other because of their polarity and acidity. They also differ from their chemical structure. Another reason why they are different from each other is because of on how they were synthesized. Example, Alanine is most commonly made by transfer of an amine group to pyruvate; The synthesis of Serine and glycine starts with the oxidation of 3-phosphoglycerate forming 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate and NADH. A transamination reaction with glutamic acid forms 3-phosphoserine and removal of Pi yields serine. Answered by Darrick Tippett 6 months ago.
BEST ANSWER a chemical subtances that neutralizes alkasin, dissolve some metals, and turns litmus red typically a corrosive or sour tasting of this kind Answered by Mistie Landberg 6 months ago.
Asked by John Menge 6 months ago.
Amino acids are the basic structural building units of proteins. They form short polymer chains called peptides or longer chains called either polypeptides or proteins. Of the 20 standard proteinogenic amino acids, 8 are called essential amino acids because the human body cannot synthesize them from other compounds at the level needed for normal growth, so they must be obtained from food. .\ ....google the stuff .....you'll find what u need.... Answered by Stephania Dahlheimer 6 months ago.
Yes? What about them? Answered by Cher Lace 6 months ago.
Wat are amino acids?
and wat do they do?
Asked by Nikita Crean 6 months ago.
Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins. When proteins are digested, amino acids are left. The human body requires a number of amino acids to grow and breakdown food. Amino acids are classified into two groups: Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body and must be supplied by food. These include cysteine, lysine, and tryptophan. Sources of essential amino acids include milk, cheese, eggs, certain meats, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Nonessential amino acids are made by the body from the essential amino acids or normal breakdown of proteins. They include aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and glycine Answered by Ned Cortopassi 6 months ago.
Amino Acids to Proteins...?
How do Amino Acids go to Protiens? Amino Acids to Proteins? Help...?
Asked by Izetta Willetts 6 months ago.
Amino Acids are converted into Proteins by Ribosomes in any Biological Cell. Each Amino Acid has a code, called a codon, made up of three DNA bases. When a protein is built, the area of DNA which holds the correct sequence of code is copied onto a complementary strand of mRNA (a process called Transcription), which moves away from the cell's nucleus, where the DNA is kept, and into the cell's cytoplasm. There, it locates a ribosome, which moves along the mRNA an anticodon at a time, and attaches a molecule of tRNA to each of the anticodons. Each of the tRNA molecules has three bases complementary to the anticodon on the mRNA strand on one end, and an Amino Acid at the other. As the ribosome moves along the mRNA, more tRNA molecules arrive, and their Amino Acids are joined together with a peptide bond. The empty tRNA molecule moves away and the ribosome moves on to the next codon. Eventually, when the end of the mRNA strand is reached, all of the Amino Acids for the protein are present, and the chain of amino acids, called a polypeptide, folds itself up into a Protein. (Paragraphs 2 & 3 detail the process called Translation). Answered by Chantel Kelder 6 months ago.
Amino Acids are the building blocks of proteins. Amino acids link together (through an amide bond) to form the protein. A protein can have 100 hundred or more amino acids linked together. A combination of 20 different amino acids can go into building a protein. You can convert the protein back to it's constituent amino acids if you digest it (a process were the amide bonds are broken by enzymes and/or acid: basically what your stomach does when you eat a hamburger). Answered by Denisha Angelino 6 months ago.
A transfer-RNA molecule, tRNA, picks up a molecule of the amino acid for which it is specific. Let's say glycine. tRNA carries the glycine to a ribosome, which is a kind of molecular stitching machine. The ribosome is feeling its way along a strand of messenger-RNA, mRNA, which has the code for the protein to be made. When the ribosome gets to the three-base codon that specifies glycine, it waits for the tRNA to arrive with the glycine. The ribosome adds the glycine molecule by an amide bond to the string of amino acids that it has already put together. The whole process is called translation (of genetic code into product protein). Answered by Annice Doerner 6 months ago.
Amino acids don't turn to proteins and it doesn't do that vis versa. Amino acids are proteins, but that doesn't make every protein an amino acid. Its kinda of like humans. Every male is a human, but not every human is a male. Answered by Christene Vallien 6 months ago.
What is the purpose of amino acid?
What does the human body use it for? How does this help if you are into weight training?
Asked by Sheri Hoerter 6 months ago.
Purpose Of Amino Acids Answered by Isaias Guerinot 6 months ago.
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. There are 20 types of amino acids and they join together in different combinations to form proteins. Answered by Catina Turnmyre 6 months ago.
There are 20 common amino acids incorporated in proteins that humans use and hundreds (~700) of other amino acids found in specific species as metabolic intermediates or for specific functions as polypeptides. In humans, non-protein amino acids (non-essential) have important roles as metabolic intermediates, such as in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. Many non-protein amino acids are involved in metabolic functions: creatine, GABA, & citrulline. When you are exercising and building muscle all metabolic functions need an optimal supply of nutrients whether directly involved or not. You want to supply all systems so they do not limit the body building processes. Your body automatically balances life processes and diverts metabolites towards the basic needs. If you wish to build muscle you must supply for the life processes first and then muscle building as well. Answered by Kaley Wolsted 6 months ago.
This Site Might Help You. RE: what is the purpose of amino acid? What does the human body use it for? How does this help if you are into weight training? Answered by Zella Samway 6 months ago.
The anticodon is a region on the tRNA that gives the molecule specificity. When a tRNA comes into the ribosome, it base pairs with the template RNA (the mRNA) by matching the codon on the mRNA to an anticodon on the tRNA. The anticodon is just three bases in the tRNA that the molecule uses to make sure the amino acid it is bringing into the polypeptide is the correct one. Consequently, because the anticodon is three bases, each amino acid is genetically coded for by three nucleotides. Hope this helps. =] Answered by Myra Blomker 6 months ago.