How is acetic acid made?
Asked by Verlene Maida 3 months ago.
Acetic acid is produced both synthetically and by bacterial fermentation. Today, the biological route accounts for only about 10% of world production, but it remains important for vinegar production, as many nations' food purity laws stipulate that vinegar used in foods must be of biological origin. About 75% of acetic acid made for use in the chemical industry is made by methanol carbonylation, explained below. Alternative methods account for the rest. Total worldwide production of virgin acetic acid is estimated at 5 Mt/a (million tonnes per year), approximately half of which is produced in the United States. European production stands at approximately 1 Mt/a and is declining, and 0.7 Mt/a is produced in Japan. Another 1.5 Mt are recycled each year, bringing the total world market to 6.5 Mt/a. The two biggest producers of virgin acetic acid are Celanese and BP Chemicals. Other major producers include Millennium Chemicals, Sterling Chemicals, Samsung, Eastman, and Svensk Etanolkemi.  Methanol carbonylation Most virgin acetic acid is produced by methanol carbonylation. In this process, methanol and carbon monoxide react to produce acetic acid according to the chemical equation: CH3OH + CO → CH3COOH The process involves iodomethane as an intermediate, and occurs in three steps. A catalyst, usually a metal complex, is needed for the carbonylation (step 2). 1. CH3OH + HI → CH3I + H2O 2. CH3I + CO → CH3COI 3. CH3COI + H2O → CH3COOH + HI By altering the process conditions, acetic anhydride may also be produced on the same plant. Because both methanol and carbon monoxide are commodity raw materials, methanol carbonylation long appeared to be an attractive method for acetic acid production. Henry Drefyus at British Celanese developed a methanol carbonylation pilot plant as early as 1925. However, a lack of practical materials that could contain the corrosive reaction mixture at the high pressures needed (200 atm or more) discouraged commercialization of these routes. The first commercial methanol carbonylation process, which used a cobalt catalyst, was developed by German chemical company BASF in 1963. In 1968, a rhodium-based catalyst (cis−[Rh(CO)2I2]−) was discovered that could operate efficiently at lower pressure with almost no by-products. The first plant using this catalyst was built by US chemical company Monsanto Company in 1970, and rhodium-catalyzed methanol carbonylation became the dominant method of acetic acid production (see Monsanto process). In the late 1990s, the chemicals company BP Chemicals commercialized the Cativa catalyst ([Ir(CO)2I2]−), which is promoted by ruthenium. This iridium-catalyzed Cativa process is greener and more efficient and has largely supplanted the Monsanto process, often in the same production plants.  Acetaldehyde oxidation Prior to the commercialization of the Monsanto process, most acetic acid was produced by oxidation of acetaldehyde. This remains the second-most-important manufacturing method, although it is uncompetitive with methanol carbonylation. The acetaldehyde may be produced via oxidation of butane or light naphtha, or by hydration of ethylene. When butane or light naphtha is heated with air in the presence of various metal ions, including those of manganese, cobalt, and chromium, peroxides form and then decompose to produce acetic acid according to the chemical equation 2 C4H10 + 5 O2 → 4 CH3COOH + 2 H2O The typical reaction is run at a combination of temperature and pressure designed to be as hot as possible while still keeping the butane a liquid. Typical reaction conditions are 150 °C and 55 atm. Side-products may also form, including butanone, ethyl acetate, formic acid, and propionic acid. These side-products are also commercially valuable, and the reaction conditions may be altered to produce more of them where needed. However, the separation of acetic acid from these by-products adds to the cost of the process. Under similar conditions and using similar catalysts as are used for butane oxidation, acetaldehyde can be oxidized by the oxygen in air to produce acetic acid 2 CH3CHO + O2 → 2 CH3COOH Using modern catalysts, this reaction can have an acetic acid yield greater than 95%. The major side-products are ethyl acetate, formic acid, and formaldehyde, all of which have lower boiling points than acetic acid and are readily separated by distillation.  Ethylene oxidation Acetaldehyde may be prepared from ethylene via the Wacker process, and then oxidized as above. In more recent times, a cheaper, single-stage conversion of ethylene to acetic acid was commercialized by chemical company Showa Denko, which opened an ethylene oxidation plant in Ōita, Japan, in 1997. The process is catalyzed by a palladium metal catalyst supported on a heteropoly acid such as tungstosilicic acid. It is thought to be competitive with methanol carbonylation for smalle Answered by Lourdes Difrancesco 3 months ago.
How Is Acetic Acid Made Answered by Enid Glotzbecker 3 months ago.
Hi! Jabir Bin Haiyan prepared acetic acid by concentration of vinegar and developed the process of golden script writing with iron pyrites.. Answered by Felicia Simas 3 months ago.
Hope this helps! Answered by Maira Witten 3 months ago.
I have a question about acetic acid.?
Why is in Acetic acid (CH3COOH) Hydrogen comes last of the formula not like other acids?
Asked by Manuela Broce 3 months ago.
Acetic acid is belonging to the class of carboxylic acids which is an organic compound with general formula R-COOH. Where R = Alkyl group, but whereas remaining acids like HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 are inorganic acids with high acidic strength. But, Acetic acid is the weak acid it undergoes partial ionisation and establishes ionic equilibrium in aqueous state. In the case of hydrocarbon part of the acetic acid in order to remove hydrogen from the alkyl part we require strong bases Because these are covalently bonded to carbon atom. In -COOH group oxygen is more electronegative when compared with the hydrogen, bond pair of electrons are attracted towards the oxygen atom and causes ionisation, but due to the + I effect of methyl group which is involved in hyper conjugation with positively charged carbon atom of carbonyl group decreases the ionisation of -COOH group results in partial ionisation. Therefore, in case of acetic acid, hydrogen comes from the carboxylic group but not alkyl group. Answered by Jennell Baerga 3 months ago.
Acetic acid is an carboxylic acid. It has carboxylic group -COOH. The last hydrogen is a part of functional group. Some other carboxylic acids are C2H5COOH, C3H7COOH...etc. Since it is an acid, a poor acid, it releases H+ ion slowly unlike strong acids. CH3COOH(aq) <===> H^+(aq) + CH3COO^-(aq) Answered by Scottie Ohair 3 months ago.
Organic acid formulas reflect the structure of the molecule. The organic base unit comes first and then the acid group comes last. It helps to maintain a naming consistency with all of the other molecules that have an organic base unit. Answered by Ewa Russler 3 months ago.
A convention for organic acids. Answered by Stella Filipovic 3 months ago.
Previous answers are absolutely correct, but you should know that sometimes CH3COOH is also written as HC2H3O2 where the acid hydrogen is written first. Answered by Ulrike Tamblyn 3 months ago.
Because its a carboxylic acid. Answered by Venice Cooksley 3 months ago.
It reflects the structure the COOH is C=O, and also C-OH Answered by Verena Laferriere 3 months ago.
What is the toxicity of Acetic acid ?
Asked by Rashad Wassinger 3 months ago.
Concentrated acetic acid is corrosive and must therefore be handled with appropriate care, since it can cause skin burns, permanent eye damage, and irritation to the mucous membranes. These burns or blisters may not appear until several hours after exposure. Latex gloves offer no protection, so specially resistant gloves, such as those made of nitrile rubber, should be worn when handling the compound. Concentrated acetic acid can be ignited with some difficulty in the laboratory. It becomes a flammable risk if the ambient temperature exceeds 39 °C (102 °F), and can form explosive mixtures with air above this temperature (explosive limits: 5.4%–16%). Solutions at more than 25% acetic acid are handled in a fume hood because of the pungent, corrosive vapour. Dilute acetic acid, in the form of vinegar, is harmless. However, ingestion of stronger solutions is dangerous to human and animal life. It can cause severe damage to the digestive system, and a potentially lethal change in the acidity of the blood. Due to incompatibilities, it is recommened to keep acetic acid away from chromic acid, ethylene glycol, nitric acid, perchloric acid, permanganates, peroxides and hydroxyls. Answered by Ashli Bergholz 3 months ago.
Solid acetic acid can be nasty stuff. But dilute it quite a bit and it's toxicity is rated delicious. Answered by Elton Harriet 3 months ago.
Not reported as toxic to human beings. Answered by Tricia Shaffen 3 months ago.
Depends on concentration. Dilute HOAc is vinegar in salad dressings. Glacial HOAc will rapidly dissolve skin. Answered by Wallace Nicoli 3 months ago.
How dangerous is acetic acid?
my son inlaw has skin burns from it.
Asked by Dalia Ouchi 3 months ago.
Acetic acid (CH3COOH), in pure form, is called "glacial" acetic acid. This material, or concentrated solutions of it, will cause severe skin burns. Vinegar, however, is a dilute form of acetic acid (less than 10%, and usually about 6%), and is harmless. Therefore, it depends on how strong the acetic acid is. Many other materials which are not acids are also capable of causing chemical burns. Not all acids cause burns BTW, even if concentrated or "pure". For example, ascorbic acid is vitamin C, which is commonly taken in tablet form. Answered by Jene Slusser 3 months ago.
vinegar is just dilute acetic acid. Look it up in a dictionary. I don't think it would harm anybody. Concentrated acetic acid, like any concentrated acid, is obviously harmful. You talk about "chemicals in acetic acid". Acetic acid IS one particular chemical. Lots of people are frightened of "chemicals", and it sounds as if you may be one of them. If so, you're in for a very scary time, because everything is 100% made of chemicals. Answered by Marya Sankovich 3 months ago.
I got that once too, like most acids if you wash it off right away it's not a problem but if you don't realize it's on you look out, fortunately the burns heal without long term toxicity Answered by Blythe Rear 3 months ago.
any acid is dangerous depending on the concentration. if the burns are not severe and all of the acid is washed off then he should be fine. some skin irritation from the burn but it shouldnt last too long. Answered by Starr Pesnell 3 months ago.
It does depend on the concentration of the acetic acid involved. It can be harmless or harmful depending. Answered by Karleen Gallese 3 months ago.
wow, chem major? acetic acid is what gives vinegar its acidity, its not dangerous, and basically the only thing u can do with it is make a salad. Glacial acetic acid is another thing entirely though, its used in making alot of things including solvents. Answered by Ashley Haymes 3 months ago.
Extract aqueous acetic acid into hexane?
if you wish to extract aqueous acetic acid into hexane,is it more effective to adjust the aqueous phase pH 3 or pH 8? why?
Asked by Lewis Sandel 3 months ago.
Acetic acid (CH3COOH) likes to give away an H⁺ (that's what makes it a Brønsted acid), but only under sufficiently basic conditions (that's what makes it a weak acid). At pH 3, acetic acid will remain acetic acid; conditions aren't basic enough, and it doesn't want to give away a H⁺. At pH 8, that's basic conditions, so the acetic acid will have given away an H⁺ to form acetate (CH3COO⁻), a highly polar ion. Like dissolves like. Hexane is nonpolar, so the highly polar acetate ion would rather stay in its polar solvent (water) and stay out of the hexane. pH 8 is therefore not a good pH to extract acetic acid with hexane. Do it at pH 3 instead; acetic acid is not so polar and will dissolve in hexane. Answered by Pamila Mihara 3 months ago.
pH2. At pH8 there is NO acetic acid to extract. Answered by Fran Mautner 3 months ago.
there are more ions in that solution so it conduct more electricity. it looks like if you have 2 glass of syrup then you mix them it will be more sweety. Answered by Leonia Gothard 3 months ago.
How to convert methane to acetic acid ?
Asked by Andrew Liske 3 months ago.
The conversion of methane to acetic acid is currently carried out in a three-step process Methane is first reformed in a heterogeneously catalyzed process that is energy- and capitalintensive to produce synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. The CO and H2 then react at high pressure in a second step to produce methanol, and finally, in the third step, acetic acid is produced by homogeneous-phase carbonylation of methanol. Because of the strong demand for acetic acid (3.1 million tons/year by the plastics, textiles, paper, paints, and adhesives industries, there is considerable interest in finding ways to synthesize acetic acid directly from methane. Sevaral studies have recently shown how this might be done. For example, methane will undergo oxidative carbonylation in either water or strong acid catalyzed by Rh or Cu cations, and the carboxylation of methane has been demonstrated in both water and strong acids using soluble V-based catalysts . A particularly interesting approach for the direct synthesis of acetic acid from methane who describe the oxidation of methane to acetic acid catalyzed by Pd2+ cations in 96 wt% sulfuric acid. The only other products observed are methyl bisulfate (a precursor to methanol) and carbon dioxide. Whereas the selectivity to the liquid-phase products is reported to be as high at 90%, Pd2+ is observed to precipitate from solution as Pd-black, causing the reaction to stop. In some case reproduces these observations and showed that the addition of Cu2+ and O2 to the reaction mixture enhances the yield of acetic acid without dramatically increasing the yield of methyl bisulfate or decreasing the selectivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of CH4 and O2 partial pressure, temperature, and sulfuric acid concentration on the synthesis of acetic acid and on the retention of Pd2+ in solution. The pathways leading to the formation of CO and CO2 were examined, as was the mechanism by which the carboxylate group in CH3COOH is formed. A further aim of this study was to identify the effects of reaction conditions on the formation of sulfur-containing acids, such as methanesulfonic acid, methane disulfonic acid, and sulfoacetic acid Answered by Shirleen Jantz 3 months ago.
List of dilute acetic acids?
Could you list some dilute acetic acids??
Asked by Cyril Weinberg 3 months ago.
Your question infers there are different kinds of acetic acids. There is only one acetic acid CH3COOH. We may dilute it with water 3%, 10%, 28% - it's still acetic acid. Another acceptable name is glacial acetic acid when it's concentrated. Another name for the acid itself is ethanoic acid. But it is still the same CH3COOH.*********Additional******* To those who may answer this question, you really should RTQ then ATQ. Answered by Ileana Holway 3 months ago.
That is a good answer, however, there may be a broader meaning of acetic = acids with low ph = H2 SO4 is a stronger acid than H2SO3. HNO3 is stronger than HNO2 with a similar level of dilution. The names to go with those 4 formulas are, sulfuric acid, sulfurous acid, nitric acid and nitrous acid. Some other strong acids are HF = hydrofluoric acid, HCl = hydrochloric acid. Neil Answered by Dianna Tetteh 3 months ago.
The sour taste in vinegar is a result of?
citric acid....salt....alkaline....acetic acid
Asked by Seymour Diles 3 months ago.
Acetic Acid. Vinegar is an acidic liquid produced from the fermentation of ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient, acetic acid (ethanoic acid). It also may come in a diluted form. The acetic acid concentration typically ranges from 4% to 8% by volume for table vinegar and up to 18% for pickling. Natural vinegars also contain small amounts of tartaric acid, citric acid, and other acids. Vinegar has been used since ancient times and is an important element in European, Asian, and other cuisines. The word "vinegar" derives from the Old French vin aigre, meaning "sour wine". Answered by Deidre Chipp 3 months ago.
Primarily because of acetic acid. Basically, food when fermented contains, ethyl alcohol which gets oxidized to form acetic acid. Natural vinegar contains acetic acid in more quantities. Acids are known to have sour taste Answered by Manuela Tomsche 3 months ago.
What is in Acetic Acid?
Asked by Neta Oliven 3 months ago.
pure acetic acid is a combination of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen and is often written as.... CH3 - CO2-H in chemistry labs you usually find acetic acid + water solutions by the way, vinegar is a label we give to a food product that contains some acetic acid. the amount varies but I've seen it in the range of 3% to about 15% acetic acid. the odor of vinegar is the odor of acetic acid. Answered by Mireille Schlissel 3 months ago.
Acetic acid is an organic compound known as a carboxylic acid. Carboxylic acids are characterized by having one or more carboxyl groups. These groups consist of a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom and also a hydroxyl group. The generic formula for carboxylic acids is R - CO2H. "R" is any chemical group and the CO2H is the carboxyl group. Pure acetic acid is a heavy, clear liquid with a sharp, overpowering odor. It will condence atmospheric water vapor, and is never found as a pure substance. Grain alcohol also behaves this way and is always at least 5% water. If the water content of acetic acid is very low, some crystals will form, especially at low temperatures. This is known as "glacial" acetic acid. Acetic acid is what is known as a "weak" acid. This means the acid does not completely disassociate into acetate and hydrogen ions. Strong acids will dissociate completely into ions, but only a tiny amount of Acetic acid is in an ionic form. This amount is in equilibrium with the rest of the acid. If anything basic is added to an Acetic acid solution, it consumes some of the acid ions, but more ions are immediately formed to replace the ones consumed. This means a solution of Acetic acid will maintain a constant pH, even though small amounts of base are added. This behaviour makes Acetic acid act as a pH buffer. Most weak acids and bases are buffers and are used to keep the pH of a solution constant. Acetic acid is very common and forms when ethyl alcohol is oxidized by atmospheric oxygen. A weak solution of Acetic acid is known as vinegar and hence, many foods rely on Acetic acid to flavor them. Ketchup is a mixture of tomatoes, sugar and vinegar. Vinegar and oil is a popular salad dressing. Acetic acid will combine with Ethanol if the two chemicals are heated in the presence of a small amount of acid. The result is an organic solvent with a very strong odor, ethyl acetate. This is the chemical used in nail polish remover. Ethyl acetate is an organic chemical known as an ester. If actetic acid is combined with alcohols other than ethanol, more pleasent smelling esters can be produced. Combining Acetic acid with octyl alcohol results in Octyl Acetate. This is what gives oranges their characteristic odor. Answered by Kaycee Haage 3 months ago.
The molecular formular for acetic acid is CH3COOH. It is a pure substance. Answered by Catalina Dibenedict 3 months ago.
HC2H3O2 hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen Answered by Lena Ensey 3 months ago.